All Issue

2018 Vol.63, Issue 1 Preview Page
March 2018. pp. 8-17
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) refers to seed germination during ripening, due to loss of dormancy before harvest. As PHS in rice causes decrease in grain yield and quality, tolerance to PHS is an important trait of Japonica cultivars in Korea. It is important to investigate the related genes and environmental factors, because PHS is a quantitative trait. In this study, we examined PHS rates at three different times according to the cumulative daily mean temperature after heading (CTAH) for 5 rice cultivars released in Korea for 5 years from 2013 to 2017 to determine the effect of environmental factors on PHS. ABA content in ripening spikelets was analyzed to understand how it was related to PHS tolerance. PHS rate increased as CTAH increased from 800℃ to 1200℃. PHS rate was significantly different (p < 0.001) among the cultivars, showing Dasanbyeo, Jounbyeo, and Nampyeongbyeo to be PHS-tolerant, and Jopyeongbyeo and Gopumbyeo to be susceptible at all the CTAH of 800, 1000, and 1200℃. In 2015 and 2016, PHS rates were relatively higher, because of high temperature and frequent rainfall during the ripening period. In each cultivar, ABA content decreased as CTAH increased from 800℃ to 1200℃. However, there was no significant correlation between ABA content and PHS tolerance among the cultivars.

  1. Arc, E., J. Sechet, F. Corbineau, L. Rajjou, and A. Marion-Poll. 2013. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination. Front. Plant Sci. 4(63) : 1-19.10.3389/fpls.2013.00063
  2. Baek, J. S. and N. J. Chung. 2014a. Pre-harvest sprouting variation of rice seeds located on each panicle position according to grain filling days. Korean J. Crop Sci. 59(1) : 22-26.10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.1.022
  3. Baek, J. S. and N. J. Chung. 2014b. Influence of rainfall during the ripening stage on pre-harvest sprouting, seed quality, and longevity of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Korean J. Crop Sci. 59(4) : 406-412.10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.406
  4. Biddulph, T. B., J. A. Plummer, T. L. Setter, and D. J. Mares. 2008. Seasonal conditions influence dormancy and preharvest sprouting tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the field. Field Crops Res. 107(2) : 116-128.10.1016/j.fcr.2008.01.003
  5. Cho, D. S., I. B. Kim, T. Yun, S. K. Park, and K. C. Kwun. 1987. Studies on the viviparous germination in rice-(1)-effect of harvesting and seeding time. Res. Rep. Agri. Sci.-Chungbuk National University 5(1) : 3-13.
  6. Fidler, J., E. Zdunek-Zastocka, and W. Bielawski. 2015. Regulation of abscisic acid metabolism in relation to the dormancy and germination of cereal grains. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 84(1) : 3-11.10.5586/asbp.2015.004
  7. Finch-Savage, W. E. and G. Leubner-Metzger. 2006. Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytol. 171(3) : 501-523.10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01787.x16866955
  8. Gubler, F., A. A. Millar, and J. V. Jacobsen. 2005. Dormancy release, ABA and pre-harvest sprouting. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8(2) : 183-187.10.1016/j.pbi.2005.01.01115752999
  9. He, D. L. and P. F. Yang. 2013. Proteomics of rice seed germination. Front. Plant Sci. 4(246) : 1-9.10.3389/fpls.2013.00246
  10. Huh, S. M., Y. S. Hwang, Y. S. Shin, M. H. Nam, D. Y. Kim, and I. S. Yoon. 2013. Comparative transcriptome profiling of developing caryopses from two rice cultivars with differential dormancy. J. Plant Physiol. 170(12) : 1090-1100.10.1016/j.jplph.2013.03.00323579068
  11. Ju, Y. C., S. W. Han, J. S. Park, and K. Y. Park. 2000. Effective screening method for viviparous germination of rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 45(2) : 103-107.
  12. Kaneko, M., H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, M. Ashikari, and M. Matsuoka. 2002. The alpha-amylase induction in endosperm during rice seed germination is caused by gibberellin synthesized in epithelium. Plant Physiol. 128(4) : 1264-1270.10.1104/pp.01078511950975PMC154254
  13. Kang, J., S. Yim, H. Choi, A. Kim, K. P. Lee, L. Lopez-Molina, E. Martinoia, and Y. Lee. 2015. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination. Nat Commun 6 : 8113.10.1038/ncomms911326334616PMC4569717
  14. Kim, S. J., J. G. Won, D. J. Ahn, S. D. Park, and C. D. Choi. 2008. Influence of viviparous germination on quality and yield in rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 53(S) : 15-18.
  15. Kim, Y. W. 1995. Chemical components related with seed dormancy and viviparous germination in rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 40(1) : 113-119.
  16. Korean Rice Research Association Inc. (KRRA). 2010. Rice and rice. pp.466-467.
  17. Lee, G. A., Y. A. Jeon, H. S. Lee, D. Y. Hyun, J. R. Lee, M. C. Lee, S. y. Lee, K. H. Ma, and H. J. Koh. 2018. Variation in pre-harvest sprouting resistance, seed germination and changes in abscisic acid levels during grain development in diverse rice genetic resources. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 16(1) : 18-27.10.1017/S1479262116000319
  18. Lee, J. H., E. K. Ahn, W. G. Ha, E. G. Jeong, Y. J. Won, Y. H. Jeon, S. B. Lee, K. H. Jung, J. K. Chang, and J. H. Lee. 2015. Viviparous characteristics of four Korean japonica rice cultivars adapted to tropical region. J. Korean Soc. Intn. Agr. 27(2) : 168-171.10.12719/KSIA.2015.27.2.168
  19. Lee, S. Y., J. H. Ahn, H. J. Kim, and M. Y. Eun. 2006. Relationship among viviparous germination, dry-heat tolerance and seed longevity in Milyang 23/Gihobyeo RILs. J. Bio- environ. Control 15(4) : 421-427.
  20. Liu, H. T., Y. F. Li, T. G. Luan, C. Y. Lan, and W. S. Shu. 2007. Simultaneous determination of phytohormones in plant extracts using SPME and HPLC. Chromatographia 66(7) : 515-520.10.1365/s10337-007-0350-3
  21. Liu, S. J., H. H. Xu, W. Q. Wang, N. Li, W. P. Wang, Z. Lu, I. M. Moller, and S. Q. Song. 2016. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds. J. Plant Physiol. 196-197 : 79-92.10.1016/j.jplph.2016.02.02127085178
  22. Liu, Y., J. Fang, F. Xu, J. Chu, C. Yan, M. R. Schlappi, Y. Wang, and C. Chu. 2014. Expression patterns of ABA and GA metabolism genes and hormone levels during rice seed development and imbibition: A comparison of dormant and non-dormant rice cultivars. J. Genet. Genomics 41(6) : 327-338.10.1016/j.jgg.2014.04.004
  23. Magwa, R. A., H. Zhao, and Y. Xing. 2016. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a diverse genetic basis of seed dormancy across subpopulations in rice (oryza sativa l.). BMC Genet. 17 : 28.10.1186/s12863-016-0340-226810156PMC4727300
  24. Nakazono, K., H. Ohno, H. Yoshida, and H. Nakagawa. 2013. Effects of meteorological factors during grain development on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat. Jpn. J. Crop Sci. 82(2) : 183-191.10.1626/jcs.82.183
  25. Oh, S., C. Kim, C. Kim, S. Kim, and J. Lee. 1987. Influence of viviparous germination on quality and yield potential of rice. Res. Rept. RDA (Crops) 29(1) : 68-73.
  26. Park, J. S. and H. D. Kim. 2009. Viviparous germination characteristics of rice vrieties adaptable to central region of Korea. Korean J. Crop Sci. 54(3) : 241-248.
  27. Park, K. B. and R. K. Park. 1984. Studies onf the viviparous germination of indica×japonica type varieties in paddy rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 29(1) : 15-18.
  28. R Core Team. 2017. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  29. Rural Development Administration (RDA). 2012. Research and analysis standards of agricultural science and technology. 5th ed., Suwon. p.317-338.
  30. Rural Development Administration (RDA). 2015. High quality rice production manual. Revised ed. Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Korea. pp.405-414.
  31. Shon, J., J. Kim, H. Jung, B. K. Kim, K. J. Choi, and W. Yang. 2014. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on seed viability, germination and seedling emergence rate of rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 59(4) : 427-434.10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.427
  32. Shu, K., X. D. Liu, Q. Xie, and Z. H. He. 2016. Two faces of one seed: Hormonal regulation of dormancy and germination. Molecular Plant 9(1) : 34-45.10.1016/j.molp.2015.08.01026343970
  33. Shu, K., Y. J. Meng, H. W. Shuai, W. G. Liu, J. B. Du, J. Liu, and W. Y. Yang. 2015. Dormancy and germination: How does the crop seed decide? Plant Biol. 17(6) : 1104-1112.10.1111/plb.1235626095078
  34. Suh, K. H. and Y. W. Kim. 1994. Varietal differnce in viviparous germination at different days after heading and temperature conditons in rice. Korean J. Crop Sci. 39(2) : 187-192.
  35. Wan, J. M., L. Jiang, J. Y. Tang, C. M. Wang, M. Y. Hou, W. Jing, and L. Zhang. 2006. Genetic dissection of the seed dormancy trait in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Sci. 170(4) : 786-792.10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.11.011
  36. Wu, T., C. Yang, B. Ding, Z. Feng, Q. Wang, J. He, J. Tong, L. Xiao, L. Jiang, and J. Wan. 2016. Microarray-based gene expression analysis of strong seed dormancy in rice cv. N22 and less dormant mutant derivatives. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 99 : 27-38.10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.12.00126713549