• Research Article

    Variation in Grain Quality and Yield of Black-colored Rice Affected by the Transplanting Time and Temperature during Ripening Stage

    흑미 품종의 이앙기와 등숙기 온도 변화에 따른 품질 및 수량 변화 특성 구명

    Hyun Kyung Bae, Jong Ho Seo, Jung Dong Hwang, Sang Yeol Kim

    배현경, 서종호, 황정동, 김상열

    Black-colored rice contains anthocyanin, which has an antioxidant function on the seed coat. Anthocyanin content is greatly affected by the cultivation environment ... + READ MORE
    Black-colored rice contains anthocyanin, which has an antioxidant function on the seed coat. Anthocyanin content is greatly affected by the cultivation environment, especially the average temperature during the ripening stage. Generally, low temperatures during the ripening stage increase anthocyanin content. To control the average temperature during ripening stage in the field, transplanting time has to be regulated. In this study, anthocyanin content variation was examined in relation to the transplanting time and the average temperature during the ripening stage. For the study, fourteen black-colored rice cultivars with different maturity types (four of early-maturing, five of medium-maturing, and five of medium-late maturing) were selected. The transplanting times used were May 20, June 5, June 20, and June 30. The field experiment was conducted in the Miryang, Kyoungsangnamdo province, Korea from 2014 to 2017. The anthocyanin content in all cultivars was higher when the transplanting time was delayed, and the highest anthocyanin content was observed in the transplanting on June 30. Variation in anthocyanin content according to the change in transplanting time is the greatest in the early maturing cultivars. The least change was observed in medium maturing cultivars. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between temperature and anthocyanin content, but the degree of correlation was very low in the medium maturing cultivar. As a result, the optimal average temperature during the grain filling stage for increasing the anthocyanin content of black colored rice was 22~23°C. The rice yield increased in plants transplanted until June 20 and decreased thereafter owing to low temperature during the grain filling stage. The anthocyanin content increased with delaying the transplanting time up to June 30 but the rice yield decreased after June 20. Nevertheless, the rate of increase in anthocyanin content was higher than the rate of decrease in rice yield. As a result, the optimum transplanting time and an average temperature of grain filling stage for black-colored rice variety were June 30 and 23~24°C considering both anthocyanin content and rice yield. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Statistical Analysis of Amylose and Protein Content in Landrace Rice Germplasm Collected from East Asian Countries Based on Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)

    근적외선분광분석에 의한 동아시아 지역 재래종 벼 유전자원의 아밀로스 및 단백질 함량 변이분석

    Sejong Oh, Yu Mi Choi, Hyemyeong Yoon, Sukyeung Lee, Eunae Yoo, Myung Chul Lee, Muhammad Rauf, Byungsoo Chae

    오세종, 최유미, 윤혜명, 이수경, 유은애, 이명철, Muhammad Rauf, 채병수

    A statistical analysis of 4,380 non-glutinous landrace rice germplasm collected from four East Asian countries namely South Korea (1,032), North ... + READ MORE
    A statistical analysis of 4,380 non-glutinous landrace rice germplasm collected from four East Asian countries namely South Korea (1,032), North Korea (994), Japan (800), and China (528) was conducted using normal distribution, variability index value (VIV), analysis of variation (ANOVA), and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) based on a data obtained from Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis. In normal distribution, the average protein content was 8.2%, and the non-glutinous rice amylose, ranging over 10%, was found to be 22.0%. Protein content in most gremplasm was between 5.4 and 10.9%, and amylose content was between 15.0 and 28.9%. The VIV was 0.50 for protein, and 0.81 for non-glutinous rice amylose content. The average amylose content was 23.34% in Chinese, 21.55% in South Korean, 21.45% in Japanese, and 20.48% in North Korean resources, while the average protein content was found to be 9.02% in Chinese, 8.06% in Japanese, 8.04% in North Korean, and 7.99% in South Korean resources. ANOVA of amylose and protein content showed significant differences at p=0.01. The F-test value for amylose content was 94.92, and for protein content was 81.82 compared to the critical value of 3.79. DMRT of amylose and protein content revealed significant differences (p<0.01). Among the various germplasm obtained from different countries, that from North Korean had the lowest level of amylose content, whereas that from South Korea had the lowest level of protein content than all other resources. Chinese resources had the highest level of amylose and protein content. It is recommended to use these results in breeding fields. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Quantitative Variation of Total Seed Isoflavone and Its Compositions in Korean Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)
    Hong-Sik Kim, Beom-Kyu Kang, Jeong-Hyun Seo, Tae-Joung Ha, Hyun-Tae Kim, Sang-Ouk Shin, Chang-Hwan Park, Do-Yeon Kwak

    kjcs_64_02_03_F.jpg

    The variation of content of 12 soybean seed isoflavone components was determined in the aglycone, glucoside, malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside groups of 44 ... + READ MORE
    The variation of content of 12 soybean seed isoflavone components was determined in the aglycone, glucoside, malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside groups of 44 Korean soybean cultivars grown in 2016 as well as in 2017. The total isoflavone content of the 44 cultivars averaged at 2935.4 ㎍/g and was in the range of 950.6 to 5226.3 ㎍/g for two years. Malonylglucoside group averaged at 2437.2 ㎍/g with the highest proportion of isoflavone composition (83.0%). Significant differences were observed between cultivars, years and their interactions for both the total isoflavone and each composition group contents (P < 0.0001); however, no year-wise differences were observed for daidzein and genistin. The broad-sense heritability (h2) within the set of 44 Korean soybean cultivars was as high as 0.93 for the total isoflavone content and was in the range of 0.8–0.92 for each composition group of isoflavone except for acetylglucoside. The total isoflavone content in cultivar group for soy-sprout was higher (3850.4 ㎍/g) than that for the other cultivar groups of soy-paste and tofu (3082.8 ㎍/g), black or green soybean cooked with rice (2345.8 ㎍/g), and early maturity group (1298.6 ㎍/g). The total isoflavone content of ‘Sowonkong’, a soybean cultivar for soy-sprout, was the highest (5226.3 ㎍/g). In the cultivar group for soy-paste and tofu, the average isoflavone contents of ‘Daepung’, ‘Daepung2ho’, ‘Saegeum’, ‘Uram’, and ‘Jinpung’ were higher than 4000 ㎍/g. With the exception of small seeded cultivars with low isoflavone contents such as ‘Sohwang’ and ‘Socheongja’, the seed size and total isoflavone content were significantly negatively correlated in 2016 and 2017, respectively (r = -0.47** and -0.49**). The number of days of growth from flowering to maturity did not affect the variations observed in isoflavone content. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Kernel Sample Preparation Methods at Different Grain Filling Periods for Determining Pericarp Thickness in Super Sweet and Waxy Corn Hybrids

    시료 준비 방법에 따른 등숙 시기별 초당 및 찰옥수수 교잡종의 과피 두께 비교

    Seong-Jin Han, Tae-Yeung Oh, Min-jeong Kang, Jong-won Kang, Seung-hyun Wang, Tai-choon Park, Geon Kang, Jong-Wook Chung, Yoon-Sup So

    한성진, 오태영, 강민정, 강종원, 왕승현, 박태춘, 강건, 정종욱, 소윤섭

    Pericarp thickness of vegetable corns such as sweet and waxy corn is one of the crucial traits, contributing to their edible quality ... + READ MORE
    Pericarp thickness of vegetable corns such as sweet and waxy corn is one of the crucial traits, contributing to their edible quality. This study was carried out to compare the pericarp thickness of super sweet and waxy corn hybrids measured with kernel samples prepared using different methods at different grain filling periods. The samples comprised excised pericarp from dried, frozen (at -4°C), and fresh kernels. Analysis of variance performed separately on super sweet and waxy corn hybrids indicated a significant three-way interaction among cultivars, kernel sample preparation methods, and days after pollination (DAP). Dried samples of super sweet corn hybrids presented reasonably stable pericarp thickness measurements during grain filling, while all the sample preparation methods fluctuated less as grains of waxy corn hybrids matured. Waxy corn is best consumed at around 24 days after pollination. Pericarp thickness of waxy kernel samples regardless of preparation methods investigated was the same at 24 DAP with a few exceptions. Overall, the common method of drying kernel samples before pericarp excision can provide reliable data for estimating the tenderness of vegetable corn hybrids. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Screening for Fittest Miscellaneous Cereals for Reclaimed Land and Functionality Improvement of Sorghum bicolor Cultivated in Reclaimed Land

    간척지 적응성 잡곡 선발 및 간척지 재배 수수의 기능성 향상 효과

    Chan Ho Kang, In Sok Lee, Suk Ju Kwon

    강찬호, 이인석, 권석주

    Genetic resources of 84 species of Setaria italica BEAUVOIS, Sorghum bicolor, and Panicum miliaceum were collected to select the adaptable miscellaneous cereals ... + READ MORE
    Genetic resources of 84 species of Setaria italica BEAUVOIS, Sorghum bicolor, and Panicum miliaceum were collected to select the adaptable miscellaneous cereals in Saemangeum reclaimed land. The adaptability of Sorghum bicolor in reclaimed land was the highest among the three cereals cultivated on reclaimed land. The ratio of the average height of Sorghum bicolor plants cultivated in reclaimed land/normal field was 0.82, that of Panicum miliaceum was 0.61, and that of Setaria italica BEAUVOIS was 0.51. Three species of Sorghum bicolor, Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, and Nampungcharl, were selected as potential genetic resources as they had excellent adaptability to reclaimed land. The yield of Satandaejuk on reclaimed land was 229.4 kg/10a, and the yield ratio of reclaimed land/normal field was 89.3%. The yield of Kkamansusu was 227.4 kg/10a, with reclaimed land/normal field ratio of 87.8%, and yield of Nampungcharl was 239.6 kg/10a, and reclaimed land/normal field ratio of 86%. In order to study the salt tolerance of selected genetic resources, we conducted salinity test. Salinity tolerance of Sorghum bicolor species-Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, Nampungcharl was excellent compared to that of the other cereals. Among these, Satandaejuk had to highest salt tolerance level. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and detoxification of free radical were also studied. The anti-diabetic property of the cereals was also analyzed by α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We confirmed that the functionality of 3 lines in reclaimed land had improved in all the functional analysis categories when compared to that with yield in the normal field. Polyphenol, an antioxidant, increased in the range of 2~26% when cultivated in reclaimed land and the flavonoid content also increased from 8.5 to 55.6%. DPPH elimination capability, the ability to scavenge harmful reactive oxygen, also increased from 16.7 to 47% when cultivated in reclaimed land. The anti-diabetic activity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of selected Sorghum bicolor species-Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, Nampungcharl also increased from 18.4 to 19.9% when cultivated on reclaimed land. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Estimation of Heading Date using Mean Temperature and the Effect of Sowing Date on the Yield of Sweet Sorghum in Jellabuk Province

    평균온도를 이용한 전북지역 단수수의 출수기 추정 및 파종시기별 수량 변화

    Young Min Choi, Kyu-Hwan Choi, So-Hee Shin, Hyun-Ah Han, Byong Soo Heo, Suk-Ju Kwon

    최영민, 최규환, 신소희, 한현아, 허병수, 권석주

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), compared to traditional crops, has been evaluated as a useful crop with high adaptability to the ... + READ MORE
    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), compared to traditional crops, has been evaluated as a useful crop with high adaptability to the environment and various uses, but cultivation has not expanded owing to a lack of related research and information in Korea. This study was conducted to estimate heading date in ‘Chorong’ sweet sorghum based on climate data of the last 30 years (1989 - 2018) from six regions (Jeonju, Buan, Jeongup, Imsil, Namwon, and Jangsu) in Jellabuk Province. In addition, we compared the growth and quality factors by sowing date (April 10, April 25, May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25, and July 10) in 2018. Days from sowing to heading (DSH) increased to 107, 96, 83, 70, 59, 64, and 65 days in order of the sowing dates, respectively, and the average was 77.7 days. The effective accumulated temperature for heading date was 1,120.3°C. The mean annual temperature was the highest in Jeonju, followed in descending order by Jeongup, Buan, Namwon, Imsil, and Jangsu. The DSH based on effective accumulated temperature gradually decreased in all sowing date treatments in the six regions during the last 30 years. DSH of the six regions showed a negative relationship with mean temperature (sowing date to heading date) and predicted DSH (R2 = 0.9987**) calculated by mean temperature was explained with a probability of 89% of observed DSH in 2017 and 2018. At harvest, fresh stem weight and soluble solids content were higher in the April and July sowings, but sugar content was higher in the May 10 (3.4 Mg·ha-1) and May 25 (3.1 Mg·ha-1) sowings. Overall, the April and July sowings were of low quality and yield, and there is a risk of frost damage; thus, we found May sowings to be the most effective. Additionally, sowing dates must be considered in terms of proper harvest stage, harvesting target (juice or grain), cultivation altitude, and microclimate. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Nutritional Compositions of Varieties of Foxtail Millet and Proso Millet Developed in Korea

    국내 육성 조와 기장 품종의 영양성분 특성

    Ji-Myung Choi, Do-Yeon Kwak, Myeong-Eun Choe, Seuk-Bo Song, Chang-hwan Park, Jee-Yeon Ko

    최지명, 곽도연, 최명은, 송석보, 박장환, 고지연

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) were not the major cereal crops in Korea. Although, they are ... + READ MORE
    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) were not the major cereal crops in Korea. Although, they are attracting attention due to their nutritional excellence. This study focused on nutritional composition of Korean foxtail millet and proso millet varieties. The protein content of foxtail millet is lower than that of proso millet, and the fat content tends to be higher. Especially, Daname (foxtail millet) and Geumsilchal (proso millet) showed the highest protein content. Also, among these, Chohwangme (foxtail millet) and Manhongchal (proso millet) were the highest fat content, respectively. In the essential amino acids content results, these crops were rich in leucine, phenylalanine and valine. Also, lipids were composed of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0). Especially, linoleic acid content was the highest. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Specific Gravity on Germination and Emergence of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica Beauvois)

    염수선 종자 정선법에 따른 조의 발아 및 출현율

    Ki-Youl Jung, Young-Dae Choi, Hyen-Chung Chun, Sang-Hun Lee, Seung-Ho Jeon

    정기열, 최영대, 전현정, 이상훈, 전승호

    The establishment rate of foxtail millet seeds is greatly affected by soil environment conditions. To enhance germination viability and stable production of ... + READ MORE
    The establishment rate of foxtail millet seeds is greatly affected by soil environment conditions. To enhance germination viability and stable production of foxtail millet seeds, it is important to select seeds with a high density. Therefore, this study tested the selection of high-quality seeds using salt solution (specific gravity: 1.000, 1.005, 1.010, 1.015, 1.020, 1.025, 1.030, 1.035, and 1.040 g L-1) and investigated their germination rates, percentages of emergence, and seeding quality. In this study, three varieties were tested: ‘Hwanggeum’, ‘Samdachal’, and ‘Kyeongkwan1’. The thousand seed weight of all three varieties increased proportionally with specific gravity. The highest thousand seed weight was observed at the selection with 1.040 g L-1 specific gravity, which also had the highest germination rate of 88.3%, 86.7%, and 90.6%, for ‘Hwanggeum’; ‘Samdachal’; and ‘Kyeongkwan1’, respectively. The results of seeding quality indicated that higher the specific gravity during selection, the higher were the values of plant growth (plant height, leaf length, stem diameter, root length, root weight, and stem weight). All the three varieties were found to be longer or heavier for seeds selected at the specific gravity of 1.040 g L-1. The packing germination viability investigation found that higher the specific gravity for selection of seeds, the higher was the percentage of emergence (PE) and the emergence rate index (ERI). The PE was the highest for seeds selected at 1.040 g L-1 specific gravity (85.3, 83.0, and 87.0%), and ERI was also as high as 2.82 d-1 m-1 or more at 1.040 g L-1. Selection of seeds with salt solution resulted in high germination viability of foxtail millet. Therefore, sowing seeds selected at 1.040 g L-1 specific gravity is expected to help substantially in increased productivity. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Overwintering Disease Prevention in Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by an Agronomical Control Measure in Paddy Field

    논 재배 인삼의 월동병해 발생경감을 위한 경종적 처리효과

    Bong-Jae Seong, Sun-Ick Kim, Ka-Soon Lee, Hyun-Ho Kim, Yun Kyu Kang, Jin-Woong Cho

    성봉재, 김선익, 이가순, 김현호, 강윤규, 조진웅

    This study was conducted to develop and prove the effects of an agronomical pest control measure on ginseng cultivated by direct seeding ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to develop and prove the effects of an agronomical pest control measure on ginseng cultivated by direct seeding in paddy field, and the results obtained are as follows. Decomposition of ginseng in field during overwintering was due to gray mold rot caused by Botrytis cinerea, which occurred in October or November of 2016 and intensified in February and March the following year. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot based on shading materials was 6.5%, 16.8%, and 29.5% with light-proof paper, PE shade net, and rice straw shade, respectively. The initial infection occurred in the leaves prior to wintering and secondary infection occurred in the stems after wintering. The rate of screrotium formation by gray mold in the above-ground parts of ginseng tended to increase: 26.6% on October 20, 33.7% in November 20, and 41.8% on December 20. The force needed to remove the leaves and stems from withered ginseng was 0.2, 0.94, 2.5, and 5 kg for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4- and 5-year holds; the force required was 1 kg after wintering, making it relatively easy to remove. The disease incidence rate after the removal of leaves and stems was 2.5%, 1.2%, and 2.2% in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old plants, respectively, and a disease high incidence rate of 8.8%, 13.0%, and 18.2%, respectively, was seen when the leaves and stems were not removed. In both transplanting and direct seeding, the miss-planted rate decreased and the germination rate increased when shading material was removed and the surface of ridge was covered with soil or vinyl. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019
  • Research Article

    Case Study: Cost-effective Weed Patch Detection by Multi-Spectral Camera Mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in the Buckwheat Field
    Dong-Wook Kim, Yoonha Kim, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Hak-Jin Kim, Yong Suk Chung
    Weed control is a crucial practice not only in organic farming, but also in modern agriculture because it can lead to loss ... + READ MORE
    Weed control is a crucial practice not only in organic farming, but also in modern agriculture because it can lead to loss in crop yield. In general, weed is distributed in patches heterogeneously in the field. These patches vary in size, shape, and density. Thus, it would be efficient if chemicals are sprayed on these patches rather than spraying uniformly in the field, which can pollute the environment and be cost prohibitive. In this sense, weed detection could be beneficial for sustainable agriculture. Studies have been conducted to detect weed patches in the field using remote sensing technologies, which can be classified into a method using image segmentation based on morphology and a method with vegetative indices based on the wavelength of light. In this study, the latter methodology has been used to detect the weed patches. As a result, it was found that the vegetative indices were easier to operate as it did not need any sophisticated algorithm for differentiating weeds from crop and soil as compared to the former method. Consequently, we demonstrated that the current method of using vegetative index is accurate enough to detect weed patches, and will be useful for farmers to control weeds with minimal use of chemicals and in a more precise manner. - COLLAPSE
    June 2019