• Research Article

    Optimum Seeding Date of Wet Hill Seeding on Puddled Soil after Weedy Rice Control in Southern Plain Area of South Korea

    잡초성벼 경종적 방제 후 남부지역 벼 무논점파재배 파종적기

    Woon-Ha Hwang, Jae-Hyeok Jeong, Hyen-Seok Lee, Seo-Yeong Yang, Chung-Keun Lee, Seung-Hyun Cho, Hyun-Kyung Min, Sang-Kuk Kim, Eun-Hui Han, Kyung-Jin Choi

    황운하, 정재혁, 이현석, 양서영, 이충근, 조승현, 민현경, 김상국, 한은희, 최경진

    Wet hill seeding (WHS) is one of the more famous labor and money saving methods technology used for rice cultivation. In WHS, ... + READ MORE
    Wet hill seeding (WHS) is one of the more famous labor and money saving methods technology used for rice cultivation. In WHS, rice standing percentage and weedy rice occurrence are the most important factors considered to secure a rice yield. We investigated the optimum seeding date of WHS in the Southern Plain area of South Korea. Weedy rice needed two weeks at 15°C to show over 80% emergence. Germinated rice seed grown at 20°C needed over for 10 days to achieve a shoot length over 3 cm. In field cultivation, the mean temperature for ten days after seeding showed a highly positive correlation with rice standing rate, spikelet number per square meter and yield index that favorably compared to machine transplanting. With these data, we suggest that the optimum seeding date of WHS that can secure over 98% of yield index of machine transplanting in Southern part of Korea is May. 21~Jun. 5 in Honam and May. 16~Jun. 5 in Yeongnam area. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    The Heading Response of Field-grown Rice Varieties of Different Heading Ecotypes in Korea

    벼 품종의 출수생태 특성에 따른 포장 출수 반응 분석

    Woonho Yang, Shingu Kang, Sukjin Kim, Jong-Seo Choi, Jeong-Hwa Park

    양운호, 강신구, 김숙진, 최종서, 박정화

    The heading response of rice varieties is determined by the combined effects of their basic vegetative phase (BVP), photoperiod-sensitivity (PS), and thermo-sensitivity ... + READ MORE
    The heading response of rice varieties is determined by the combined effects of their basic vegetative phase (BVP), photoperiod-sensitivity (PS), and thermo-sensitivity (TS). This study was performed to analyze the effect of differences among heading ecotypes of rice on their heading response in the field. To do this, we investigated the heading response of 15 varieties grown under different day-length and temperature conditions in a phytotron. The characteristics of heading ecotypes were compared to the heading responses in the field-grown rice varieties that were used in the phytotron experiments. The ranges of these characteristics across the 15 varieties were 18 - 35 days for BVP, 12 - 61 days for PS, and 12 - 35 days for TS. In comparisons of coupled varieties that differed only in a single trait among BVP, PS, and TS, the variety with the longer BVP and that with the higher PS had a longer period from sowing to heading (DTH), while the variety with the higher TS had a shorter DTH. The comparative magnitude of DTH in the coupled varieties followed the PS trait when BVP and PS were involved, the BVP trait when BVP and TS were involved, and the PS trait when PS and TS were involved in the heading response of field-grown rice. When comparing the coupled varieties with different traits of the three examined factors, the heading response was consistent with the PS trait. The DTH in all 15 varieties was significantly correlated with the PS, and the DTH in 9 selected varieties with a relatively small PS was correlated with BVP. The reduced DTH of rice in the July 10 seeding treatment compared to those in the June 25 and May 11 seeding treatments was positively associated with PS, but not with TS. We concluded that the heading response of rice varieties under natural conditions in Korea is mainly governed by the PS trait and is also greatly affected by the BVP trait when the PS is small. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Feed Value and Yield Potential of Main Whole-Crop Silage Rice Cultivars with Harvesting Time in the Central Plains of Korea

    중부 평야지에서 사료용 벼 주요품종의 수확시기 별 사료가치 및 수량성

    Eok-Keun Ahn, Yong-Jae Won, Hyang-Mi Park, Kuk-Hyun Jung, Ung-Jo Hyun

    안억근, 원용재, 박향미, 정국현, 현웅조

    To set an optimal harvest time for five main whole-crop silage (WCS) rice cultivars, Nokyang (Ny), Mogwoo (Mw), Mogyang (My), Nokwoo (Nw) ... + READ MORE
    To set an optimal harvest time for five main whole-crop silage (WCS) rice cultivars, Nokyang (Ny), Mogwoo (Mw), Mogyang (My), Nokwoo (Nw) and Yeongwoo(Yw), based on feed value and dry matter yield, we analyzed water content (WC), feed values such as percent crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), estimated total digestible nutrients (TDN), and calculated their dry matter yield (DMY). These parameters were estimated at the booting stage and every 10 days from start of heading to 45 days after heading (DAH) to identify the optimal harvest time for these rice varieties. In all varieties, except Ny, the WC was about 65% on the 30th DAH. In terms of WC, it is judged that there would be no major problem in preparing high quality silage when harvested between 20∼30 DAH for Ny and about 30 days for the other cultivars. The CP and CA decreased significantly as the harvest time was delayed in all varieties (p<0.05). However, the CF in the tested varieties generally declined as DAH increased, and then increased again(p<0.05). The decrease in ADF and NDF was significantly different from the booting stage to 45 DAH in all varieties (p<0.05) and the estimated TDN increased gradually in all varieties as the harvest time was delayed. The TDN of all varieties, except Nw, was over 70% around 30 DAH. As harvest time was delayed, the DMY for all WCS rice increased significantly (p<0.05). The maximum DMY for each cultivar was observed at 45 DAH, however, no significant difference (p<0.05) was seen after 40 DAH for Ny and Yw, 30 DAH for Mw and Nw, and 20 DAH for My. Considering these results and others factors such as lodging, shattering, digestibility of grains, conversion of eating rice, etc., the optimal harvest time for silage use of all WCS rice tested was generally the yellow ripening stage, at about 30 DAH (30~40 DAH for Ny and Mw, and 30 DAH for My, Nw and Yw) - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Starch Content and in vitro Hydrolysis Index of Rice Varieties Containing Resistant Starch

    저항전분 함유 쌀 품종의 로스팅(Roasting)에 따른 전분 함량 및 in vitro 가수분해지수

    Jiyoung Park, Seuk Ki Lee, Induck Choi, Hye Sun Choi, Dong Sun Shin, Hye Young Park, Sang-Ik Han, Sea-Kwan Oh

    박지영, 이석기, 최인덕, 최혜선, 신동선, 박혜영, 한상익, 오세관

    The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance starch(RS) content and in vitro hydrolysis index of roasted rice flours for ... + READ MORE
    The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance starch(RS) content and in vitro hydrolysis index of roasted rice flours for low GI food development. This study used intermediate and high amylose rice varieties containing resistant starch. The intermediate amylose rice varieties ‘Ilmi’ and high amylose rice varieties, ‘Goami4’ and ‘Dodamssal’ were tested. The crude fat and crude protein contents of the rice cultivars ranged 2.12~3.08% and 6.2~7.63%, respectively. The RS and amylose contents of Dodamssal and Goami4 were higher than those of Ilmi. RS content of Ilmi was not significantly different before and after roasting treatment. The RS content of Goami4 before roasting was significantly higher than that of Dodamssal, but the RS content of Dodamssal was higher than that of Goami4 at temperatures above 210 °C of roasting. The soluble starch decreased after roasting in Goami4 and Dodamssal. Starch hydrolysis index (HI) and expected glycemic index (GI) were higher in order of Imi, Goami4 and Dodamssal regardless of roasting treatment. The sensory evaluation showed high scores in Dodamssal for color, flavor, bitter taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and sweetness at 240 °C for 10 min and 210 °C for 30 min. The results of this study indicate that Dodamssal was suitable varieties for powder meal with low GI. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Physiological and Genetic Responses of Salt-stressed Tunisian Durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Cultivars
    Sang Heon Kim, Dae Yeon Kim, Inés Yacoubi, Yong Weon Seo
    Durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) is a major crop species cultivated for human consumption worldwide. In Tunisia, salt stress is one ... + READ MORE
    Durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) is a major crop species cultivated for human consumption worldwide. In Tunisia, salt stress is one of the main problems that limit crop production. ‘Mahmoudi’ was selected as the most salt-sensitive out of 11 Tunisian durum cultivars. Using the salt-tolerant cultivar ‘Om Rabia’, resistant and susceptible cultivars were evaluated to compare genetic responses under salt stress. At the fully expanded third leaf stage, salt stress was applied by submerging the pots in 500 mM NaCl for 5 min every day for saline water irrigation in the greenhouse. The treatment was applied for 1 week and salt stress tolerance was determined by changes of growth parameters to the control condition. The salt tolerance trait index and salt tolerance index were calculated and used as selection criteria. The expression levels of TdHKT1;4, TdHKT1;5, and TdSOS1 were examined using qPCR. For further evaluation of physiological responses, salt stress (150 mM NaCl) was additionally applied for 48 h at the fully expanded third-leaf stage. Increased expression of the genes responsible for salt tolerance and proline content in tolerant durum can be used to broaden genetic diversity and provide genetic resources for the durum breeding program. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Correlation of Quality Characteristics of Soybean Cultivars and Whole Soymilk Palatability

    콩 품종별 품질특성과 전두유 식미의 상관관계

    Ji Hae Lee, Yu Young Lee, Yurim Son, Kyung-Jin Yeum, Yoon-Mi Lee, Byong Won Lee, Koan Sik Woo, Hyun-Joo Kim, Sangik Han, Byoung Kyu Lee

    이지혜, 이유영, 손유림, 염경진, 이윤미, 이병원, 우관식, 김현주, 한상익, 이병규

    The correlation between the nutritional composition of soybeans and whole soymilk palatability was investigated using nine soybean cultivars (Teagwangkong, Daewonkong, Saedanback, Jinpung, ... + READ MORE
    The correlation between the nutritional composition of soybeans and whole soymilk palatability was investigated using nine soybean cultivars (Teagwangkong, Daewonkong, Saedanback, Jinpung, Daechan, Miso, Cheongmiin, Cheongja 3, and Socheongja). Physicochemical analysis of soybeans, showed that the protein and lipid contents were 37.7-46.0 and 15.2-20.9%, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids were 81.1-84.8% of total fatty acids, of which linoleic acids was 49.7-56.8%. Total tocopherol was 243.5-361.3 µg/g of extract, of which γ-tocopherol was 67.14-86.49 µg/g. Total isoflavone contents varied within cultivars from 495.4-1,443.8 µg/g of extract. Daidzin and genistin were 252.1-556.0 and 241.8-730.7 µg/g, respectively, which were major isoflavones in soybeans. For the sensory evaluation, whole soymilk was made from nine soybean cultivars and 20 panels investigate its palatability. The Daechan cultivar had the highest (9.1), and Cheongmiin the lowest (5.6), overall palatability score. Interestingly, sensory results were strongly correlated with linoleic acid (0.746) and stearic acid (-0.716) content. In summary, the fatty acid composition of soybeans is the key factor in determining the palatability of whole soymilk. This study could be applied to determine the suitability of cultivars for soybean products, including whole soymilk. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    The Effects of Increased Temperature on Seed Nutrition, Protein, and Oil Contents of Soybean [Glycine max (L.)]

    온도 상승에 따른 콩 종실의 무기영양과 단백질 및 지방 함량 평가

    Yun-Ho Lee, Hyeoun-Suk Cho, Jun-Hwan Kim, Wan-Gyu Sang, Pyong Shin, Jae-Kyeong Baek, Myung-Chul Seo

    이윤호, 조현숙, 김준환, 상완규, 신평, 백재경, 서명철

    The content of nutrients, proteins, and oils of crop seeds is affected by global climate change due to the increase in temperature. ... + READ MORE
    The content of nutrients, proteins, and oils of crop seeds is affected by global climate change due to the increase in temperature. Information regarding the effects of increased temperature on soybean seed nutrition is limited despite its vital role in seed quality and food security. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing temperature on seed nutrient, protein, and oil content in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cultivars (Daewonkong and Pungsannamulkong during the reproductive period in a temperature-gradient chamber. Four temperature treatments, Ta (near ambient temperature), Ta+1°C (ambient temperature+1°C), Ta+2°C (ambient temperature+2°C), Ta+3°C (ambient temperature+3°C), and Ta+4°C (ambient temperature+4°C), were established by dividing the rows along the temperature gradient. At maturity, increased temperature did not significantly affect the concentration of P, K, Ca, and Mg. The protein and oil content was significantly correlated with temperature. At maturity, the protein content of DWK and PSNK was reduced at Ta+4°C. The oil content was the highest at Ta+4°C in DWK, whereas it decreased in PSNK at Ta+4°C. Consequently, the biochemical composition of soybean seeds changed with the increase in temperature. These results illustrate the effects of temperature on soybean seed nutrient, protein, and oil content, which can help improve soybean quality at different temperatures. Thus, the biochemical composition of crop seeds can be changed in accordance with nutritional requirements for the benefit of human health in the future. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Impact of Storage Stability on Soybean (Glycine max L.) Flour Stored in Different Conditions and Package Materials
    Sung-Kyu Park, Mayakrishnan Prabakaran, Yeonju An, Chang Kwon, Soyeon Kim, Yujin Yang, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ill-Min Chung
    Soybean (Glycine max L.), a major part of Asian diet, is consumed primarily for its nutritional value. However, poor storage stability often ... + READ MORE
    Soybean (Glycine max L.), a major part of Asian diet, is consumed primarily for its nutritional value. However, poor storage stability often leads to loss of nutritional value or deterioration in quality. This study focused on the storage stability of soy flour obtained from raw and roasted “Saedanbaek” soybeans packed in polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PPE) film bags that were stored at 4°C, 20°C and 45°C for 48 weeks. The early acid values (diene and p-anisidine) of raw soybean flour (RSF) at high temperature (HT) were higher than those at refrigerated temperature (RFT) and room temperature (RT) during 48 and 12 to 36 weeks, respectively. In the case of roasted soybean flour (ROSF), which was stored at RFT and RT, the acid and conjugated diene values gradually increased after 24 weeks. In RSF, the peroxide value increased since the beginning of the 24th week. The p-anisidine value also increased during 12 to 36 weeks but was much lower than the values obtained from HT storage. As the peroxide values decreased, the p-anisidine values increased, indicating an inverse relationship. Lipoxygenase activity of ROSF at all storage conditions was lower than RSF. Several differences were observed between the packing materials used. This study could, therefore, provide useful information for the industrial use of soybean flour (SF). - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Comparison of 12 Isoflavone Profiles of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed Sprouts from Three Different Countries
    Soo-Yun Park, Jae Kwang Kim, Eun-Hye Kim, Seung-Hyun Kim, Mayakrishnan Prabakaran, Ill-Min Chung
    The levels of 12 isoflavones were measured in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) sprouts of 68 genetic varieties from three countries (China, ... + READ MORE
    The levels of 12 isoflavones were measured in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) sprouts of 68 genetic varieties from three countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The isoflavone profile differences were analyzed using data mining methods. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the CSRV021 variety was separated from the others by the first two principal components. This variety appears to be most suited for functional food production due to its high isoflavone levels. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there are meaningful isoflavone compositional differences in samples that have different countries of origin. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of these phytochemicals resulted in clusters derived from closely related biochemical pathways. These results indicate the usefulness of metabolite profiling combined with chemometrics as a tool for assessing the quality of foods and identifying metabolic links in biological systems. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Effects of Planting Density on Growth and Yield in Wide-Row Drill Seeding of Upright Type Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi Ohashi)

    직립형 팥의 넓은이랑 줄뿌림 재배시 재식밀도에 따른 생육 및 수량특성

    Ki-Youl Jung, Young-Dae Choi, Hyen-Chung Chun, Sang-Hun Lee, Seung-Ho Jeon

    정기열, 최영대, 전현정, 이상훈, 전승호

    The goal of this study was to examine the growth and yield according to planting density in wide-row drill seeding cultivation suitable ... + READ MORE
    The goal of this study was to examine the growth and yield according to planting density in wide-row drill seeding cultivation suitable for mechanized harvesting. We evaluated effects depending on planting densities [row spacing (30, 40, 50, and 60 cm) and plant spacing (10, 15, and 20 cm)] and cultivars (‘Hongeon’ and ‘Arari’ ) on growth and yield of Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi Ohashi). When row spacing decreased, the stem length increased in ‘Arari’ but decreased in ‘Hongeon.’ The stem diameter and number of branches in both the cultivars decreased with a decrease in row spacing. The pod height increased with lower planting densities. The greatest height values recorded in ‘Hongeon’ and ‘Arari’ were 5.0 cm and 8.8 cm in 30 × 10 cm and 50 × 10 cm treatments, respectively. The number of pods and number of seeds in both cultivars tended to increase with a decrease in planting density. On the other hand, in 100-seed weight, there was a difference in planting density in ‘Hongeon’, but no difference in ‘Arari’. The highest yield was at the planting density of 40×15 cm in both ‘Hongeon’ and ‘Arari’, 285 kg․10a-1 and 374 kg․10a-1. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Effects of Different Sowing Methods on Growth and Yield of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    파종방법에 따른 기장과 조의 생육 및 수량

    Ki-Youl Jung, Young-Dae Choi, Hyen-Chung Chun, Sang-Hun Lee, Seung-Ho Jeon

    정기열, 최영대, 전현정, 이상훈, 전승호

    Cultivation techniques of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), such as sowing, weeding, and harvesting, are often ... + READ MORE
    Cultivation techniques of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), such as sowing, weeding, and harvesting, are often not properly utilized, resulting in low productivity rates. The goal of this study was to develop cultivation techniques to increase millet productivity rates and reduce labor inputs. We evaluated the effects of different machine sowing methods compared with manual sowing methods from 2014 to 2016. The three machine sowing methods were dibbling, drilling, and broadcasting. Compared with manual sowing, the broadcasting method decreased labor times by 16.07 and 14.23 hr 10 a-1 for proso and foxtail millets, respectively. Proso millet showed greater culm lengths at 138 and 125 cm with the broadcasting method for two years, whereas foxtail millet after three years had greater culm lengths from both the drilling and broadcasting methods. Both crops exhibited the thickest culm stems in the 3rd year. The greatest number of seeds of the panicle were from the manual sowing method in both crops. Compared with manual sowing, broadcasting increased grain yields by 15–35% and 9.1–28% for proso and foxtail millets, respectively. Therefore, we suggest that the application of broadcasting in mechanical sowing will increase labor efficiency and yields of proso and foxtail millets. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Changes in Miscanthus sacchariflorus Growth and Heading Rate Influenced by Water Stress Treatment at Reproductive Growth Stage

    생식생장기 수분스트레스 처리가 억새의 출수율 및 생육 변화에 미치는 영향

    Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Lok Cha, Youn-Ho Moon, Kwang-Soo Kim, Da-Eun Kwon, Yong-Ku Kang

    이지은, 차영록, 문윤호, 김광수, 권다은, 강용구

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy plant that reproduces via rhizomes and has C4 metabolism. The flowering pattern of a wild type M. ... + READ MORE
    Miscanthus is a perennial energy plant that reproduces via rhizomes and has C4 metabolism. The flowering pattern of a wild type M. sacchariflorus (WTM) is affected by environmental conditions such as photoperiod and soil water status. Geodae-Uksae 1 (Geodea), which is a new M. sacchariflorus cultivar, has a lower heading rate than WMS; however the mechanism with why this happens is unknown. To confirm the effects of drought or waterlogging stresses on the growth of WTM and Geodea at the reproductive stage, we investigated variations in morphological characteristics and nutrient contents of the two Miscanthus species after four months of three water treatments. Morphological traits of the two Miscanthus species under the drought condition were similar to those under the control condition. But, the height of Geodea increased by 30% in response to the waterlogging stress. In WTM, the heading rate under the drought condition was lowest, while there was no significant difference between the waterlogging and control conditions. In the two Miscanthus species, nutrient contents, such as sucrose, total N, P2O5, K and Mg, were the highest under the drought condition, wherea Ca and Mg contents under the waterlogging condition were more than three times lower than those under the drought condition. The current study results showed that drought stress accelerated senescence and then inhibited nutrient mobilization in WTM, while waterlogging stress promoted the growth. This study is the first report to confirm that waterlogging stress promotes flowering of M. sacchariflorus. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018