• Research Article

    ld Characteristics and Related Agronomic Traits Affected by the Transplanting Date in Early Maturing Varieties of Rice in the Central Plain Area of Korea

    중부 평야지에서 조생종 벼의 이앙시기에 따른 수량 특성 변화와 작물학적 요인 분석

    Woonho Yang, Jeong-Hwa Park, Jong-Seo Choi, Shingu Kang, Sukjin Kim3

    양운호, 박정화, 최종서, 강신구, 김숙진

    In response to elevated temperature, a shift in the rice planting period was proposed as a promising option in temperate regions. To ... + READ MORE
    In response to elevated temperature, a shift in the rice planting period was proposed as a promising option in temperate regions. To understand the yield response of early maturing rice to different transplanting dates and to analyze the related agronomic traits in the central plain area, we performed a two-year study using different transplanting dates and six varieties in Suwon, Korea. The maximum head rice weight was achieved in the treatments transplanted between June 14 and 29, depending upon the varieties. The optimal mean temperature during the 40 days from heading stage for attaining the maximum head rice weight was 21.8°C on the average of six varieties. The index of head rice weight was positively correlated with the indices of both the milled rice weight and head rice percentage, the latter showing a higher coefficient of determination. The highest milled rice weight was commonly achieved from the treatment transplanted on June 29, where the head rice weight was also the highest. The index of milled rice weight was significantly correlated with the indices of grain filling percentage and number of spikelets per area, but not correlated with the index of 1000-brown rice weight. The transplanting date with the highest milled rice yield produced the largest number of spikelets per area, greatest biomass at the heading and harvesting stages, and highest level of harvest index. We suggest that the optimal transplanting date for early maturing rice varieties in the central plain area is from June 14 to 29. High head rice yield in this study was attributed to increased spikelets owing to the increased biomass production at the heading stage, enhanced grain filling due to the high biomass production and harvest index at maturity, and improved head rice percentage. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Selection of Suitable Varieties for Organic Rice Farming in the Central Plain Area of Korea

    중부평야지 벼 유기재배 적정 품종 선정

    Chae-Young Lee, Jae-Seong Park, Joung-Kwan Lee, Eun-Jeong Kim, Hee-Du Lee, Ye-Seul Choi, Ik-Jei Kim, Seong-Taek Hong, Chung-Kon Kim, Sun-Hee Woo

    이채영, 박재성, 이정관, 김은정, 이희두, 최예슬, 김익제, 홍성택, 김정곤, 우선희

    The rice variety Chucheongbyeo is mostly cultivated for organic farming in the central region of Korea. This variety is more delicate than ... + READ MORE
    The rice variety Chucheongbyeo is mostly cultivated for organic farming in the central region of Korea. This variety is more delicate than the recently developed varieties in rice yield, quality, and pest resistance, and is therefore, not suitable for organic farming. This study was conducted to select suitable varieties for organic rice farming in the central plain area of Korea. We tested 15 different varieties in the organic paddy field of Cheongju city from 2011 to 2013. As the experimental field had good fertility because it had been organically managed for many years, culm length and number of panicles developed better than the varietal characteristics. Daebo, Chinnong and Hyeonpum had slightly lower ripened grain ratio than Chucheongbyeo. The milled rice yield of Samkwang, Sukwang, Haiami, Cheonghaejinmi and Daebo increased by 9-18% compared to that of Chucheongbyeo. The protein content was under 7% for Cheongnam, Sukwang, Daebo, Samkwang, Hyeonpum, Chinnong, Chilbo, Hopyung, Hwangkeumnuri, Suryeojinmi and Jinsumi and under 6% for Sukwang and Samkwang. The whiteness was over 40 in Sukwang, Daebo, Samkwang and Jinsumi. The palatability grade and head rice ratio were good in Daebo, Sukwang, Samkwang and Jinsumi. Therefore, this study recommended Samkwang, Daebo, and Jinsumi as the optimal varieties for organic rice farming in the central plain area of Korea. These varieties could replace Chucheongbyeo, which is inferior to the recently developed varieties in terms of disease and pest resistance and yielding performance. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Heading and Ripening Characters of Major Early Maturing Breeding Rice Lines According to Transplanting Date and Temperature Condition

    이앙기 및 온도에 따른 주요 벼 조생종 교배모본의 출수 및 등숙 특성 변화

    Woon-Ha Hwang, Chung-Kuen Lee, Jae-Hyeok Jung, Hyeon-Suk Lee, Seo-Yeong Yang, Yeon-Hwa Im, Kyung-Jin Choi

    황운하, 이충근, 정재혁, 이현석, 양서영, 임연화, 최경진

    Early-maturing rice type is cultivated to produce rice before the Korean Thanksgiving Day. We investigated the flowering and ripening characteristics of major ... + READ MORE
    Early-maturing rice type is cultivated to produce rice before the Korean Thanksgiving Day. We investigated the flowering and ripening characteristics of major breeding lines in early maturing rice type. In Jeonju, field growth days (FGD) from transplanting to heading changed about 3.3 days by 10 days of transplanting days and about 2.5 days by the change of mean temperature during growth period. As the temperature during ripening stage, 1000 brown rice weight was changed 0.2 g, the rice quality of brown and milled rice was changed 5% and 6.5%, respectively. Baegilmi and Kittake showed early heading habit suitable for harvesting before Korean Thanksgiving. Joun and Pecos showed good ripening characteristics under high temperature during the ripening stage. We expect that these characteristics might be useful for breeding new rice cultivars for harvesting before Korean Thanksgiving. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Effect of Climate on the Yield of Different Maturing Rice in the Yeongnam Inland Area over the Past 20 Years

    영남내륙 지역 과거 20년간 기후와 벼 조만성별 쌀 수량 변화

    Jong-Hee Shin, Chae-Min Han, Jung-Bae Kwon, Sang-Kuk Kim

    신종희, 한채민. 권중배, 김상국

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between rice yield and climate elements in Daegu (southern plain area) and ... + READ MORE
    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between rice yield and climate elements in Daegu (southern plain area) and Andong (inland mountainous area) regions. Over the past 20 years, rice yield has increased in both regions. The rice yield of middle and mid-late maturing cultivars in the recent 5 years increased by about 10% and 18%, respectively, compared to that produced in the early 2000s in the Daegu region. In the Andong region, the rice yield of mid-late maturing rice cultivars in the recent 5 years was higher by about 7% than that of the early 2000s. The number of panicles per hill and grain ripening rate significantly affected rice yield in mid-late maturing cultivars. In addition, the grain weight and grain ripening rate significantly affected rice production in middle maturing cultivars grown in the Daegu region. With regard to the middle maturing cultivars, the relationship between grain weight and rice yield had a positive significant correlation in both regions. To understand the effect of climate factors on rice yield, the milled rice yield of several rice cultivars produced over the past 20 years (1999-2018) at both locations, Daegu and Andong, were evaluated. The rice yields increased owing to long sunshine duration during the grain filling stage in the Daegu region. In Andong, rising maximum temperature during the vegetative stage increased rice yield of early and mid-late maturing cultivars. Long sunshine hours increased yield of mid-late maturing cultivars in both regions. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Application Effect of the Controlled Release Fertilizer Applied on Seedling Tray at Seeding Time in Rice

    벼 모판 파종동시처리 완효성비료 시용효과

    Tae-Jin Won, Byoung-Rourl Choi, Kwang-Rae Cho, Gab-June Lim, Jeong-Hyun Chi, Sun-Hee Woo

    원태진, 최병열, 조광래, 임갑준, 지정현, 우선희

    The optimal application rate of a controlled release fertilizer (CRF) on the growth, yield, and seeding time of rice grown on seedling ... + READ MORE
    The optimal application rate of a controlled release fertilizer (CRF) on the growth, yield, and seeding time of rice grown on seedling trays was investigated. The experimental field was located at 37°22'10''N latitude and 127°03'85''E longitude in Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. The soil in the paddy field was a clay loam. The CRF used in the experiment contained 300 g kg-1 of nitrogen, 60 g kg-1 of phosphate, and 60 g kg-1 of potassium, respectively. The CRF was applied at the rate of 0, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 grams on rice seedling tray compared with the field application based on soil testing (control), respectively. The CRF can be applied as single application(which can replace basal fertilizer application and two top dressing application) directly to the seedling tray, and showed the minimum release at the seedling period. Considering the plant growth, nitrogen use efficency and yield of rice, the optimal application rate of developed CRF was 500 g per seedling tray and the yield of rice at this application rate was 4.92~5.04 Mg ha-1. The regression formula between the rice yield and application rates of CRF was as follows ; 『Y=0.0002χ2+0.0963χ+411.6(R2 : 0.9922) in 2010 and Y=8E-6χ2+0.2723χ+344.04(R2:0.9864) in 2011, Y : Rice yield (Mg ha-1), χ : Application rate (grams) of controlled release fertilizer』. The optimum application rates of CRF per rice seedling tray by regression formula was 498 grams in 2010 and 513 grams in 2011. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Temperature-dependent Differences in Heading Response at Different Growth Stages of Rice
    HyeonSeok Lee, MyoungGoo Choi, YunHo Lee, WoonHa Hwang, JaeHyeok Jeong, SeoYeong Yang, YeonHwa Lim, ChungGen Lee, KyungJin Choi3
    There is an increasing frequency in the occurrence of abnormal weather phenomena such as sharp increases and decreases in temperature. Under these ... + READ MORE
    There is an increasing frequency in the occurrence of abnormal weather phenomena such as sharp increases and decreases in temperature. Under these weather conditions, the heading time of rice changes unexpectedly, which poses problems in agriculture. Therefore, we investigated the effect of temperature on the heading response at different growth stages in rice. During the period from transplanting to heading, the plants were subjected to different temperature treatments, each for a 9-day period, to observe the heading response. For the heading date analysis, “heading date” was defined as the number of days from transplanting to the appearance of the first spikelet. We found that the influence of temperature increased in the order of rooting stage, followed by meiosis, early tillering, spikelet differentiation, and panicle initiation stage in all ecological types and cultivars. In particular, unlike the results reported previously, the effect of temperature on heading during the photo-sensitive period was very small. Meanwhile, the influence of temperature on vegetative growth response at different growth stages was not consistent with heading response. These results can be used as basic data for predicting the variation in heading date owing to temperature variation at each growth stage. In addition, we propose that the concept of day length should be included in determining the influence of temperature on the photo-sensitive period. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Quality and Processing Suitability of Mixed Seeding and Flour Blending between Wheat Varieties

    밀 품종 혼파와 밀가루 혼합에 따른 품질 및 가공적성 분석

    Kyeong-Min Kim, Kyeong-Hoon Kim, Chon-Sick Kang, Han young Jeong, Chang-Hyun Choi, Jinhee Park, Jae-Han Son, Jinwoo Yang, Young-Jin Kim, Tae-Il Park, Meera Kweon

    김경민, 김경훈, 강천식, 정한용, 최창현, 박진희, 손재한, 양진우, 김영진, 박태일, 권미라

    This study was conduct to investigate the effect of mixed seed sowing and flour blending on the uniformity of flour quality of ... + READ MORE
    This study was conduct to investigate the effect of mixed seed sowing and flour blending on the uniformity of flour quality of Korean domestic wheat. Two wheat varieties (Keumkang and Baegjoong) were selected for sowing mixed seeds, and their growth characteristics and flour quality were analyzed. Quality of flour blending with the same varieties was also evaluated. The ratios for mixed seed sowing and flour blending were from 0 to 100% with a 10% increase of interval for each treatment. On increasing the portion of Baegjoong in mixed seed sowing, the heading time was a little delayed, however, yield increased. The results of the flour quality showed lower damaged starch content and sodium carbonate SRC (solvent retention capacity) value for Keumkang than for Baegjoong. Protein quantity by protein content and quality by SDSS (Sodium Dodecyle Sulfate- Sedimentation) volume, lactic acid SRC, and mixograph pattern of Keumkang were superior to those of Baegjoong. Compared with mixed seed sowing, overall quality characteristics of flours with different ratios showed predictable and proportional change by flour blending. This demonstrated the successful application of flour blending, compared with mixed seed sowing, for improving the uniformity of flour quality. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Wheat-Rice Double Cropping System in Rice Fields of the Cheonan Area for the Production of Domestic Wheat

    국산밀 생산을 위한 천안지역 논에서의 밀-벼 이모작 작부체계

    Young-Bok Kim, Yangjing, Seong-Tak Yoon

    김영복, 양경, 윤성탁

    In order to select the best varieties and cultivation methods for the production of domestic wheat for Hodugwaja(a walnut shaped confection ... + READ MORE
    In order to select the best varieties and cultivation methods for the production of domestic wheat for Hodugwaja(a walnut shaped confection), we carried out a 3-year experiment (2015~2017) to investigate the effect of different factors (crop variety, planting date, nitrogen fertilization) in a double cropping system (wheat then rice) on crop yields in the Cheonan area. Rice is the second crop in the system, and requires an accumulated temperature for 40 days of about 840~930℃ to ensure ripening. Transplanting dates for rice between June 29 and July 6 were suitable; transplanting on or after July 13 does not ensure ripening. The daily hours of sunshine ranged from 6.3 to 6.5 hours, which were slightly higher than the optimum of 6.0 to 6.1 hours. The higher the nitrogen fertilizer treatment, the higher culm length, and spike length of wheat. The yield of wheat per 10a tended to increase as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. Wheat yields were highest for the Sooan variety, followed by Goso, followed by Keumgang. The number of days from transplanting to heading of rice were shortest for the Jopyeong variety followed by Unkwang, followed by Haedam. The yield of milled rice per 10a increased as the transplanting date was earlier and the transplanting date of June 9 showed the average yield of more than 500 kg in three varieties. From the results of the experiment, we recommend the Goso wheat variety and the Haedam rice variety for growing in a double cropping system under the climatic conditions of the Cheonan area. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Assessment of the Effects of Interactions between Climatic Conditions and Genetic Characteristics on the Agronomic Traits of Soybeans Grown in Six Different Experimental Fields
    Myoung Ryoul Park, Chunmei Cai, Min-Jung Seo, Hong-Tae Yun, Soo-Kwon Park, Man-Soo Choi, Chang-Hwan Park, Jung Kyung Moon
    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a species of legume native to East Asia. The interactions between climatic conditions and genetic characteristics ... + READ MORE
    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a species of legume native to East Asia. The interactions between climatic conditions and genetic characteristics are known to affect the agricultural performance of soybean. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted to identify the main elements affecting the agricultural performances of 11 soybean varieties/lines from China [Harbin (45°12′N), Yanji (42°53′N), Dalian (39°30′N), Qingdao (36°26′N)] and the Republic of Korea [Suwon (37°16′N), and Jeonju (35°49′N)]. The days to flowering (DTF) of soybeans with the e1-nf and e1-as alleles and the E1e2e3e4 genotype, except in ‘Keumgangkong’, ‘Tawonkong’, and ‘Duyoukong’, were relatively short compared to those of soybeans with other alleles. Although DTF of the soybeans was highly correlated with all climatic conditions [negative: precipitation, average temperature (AVT), accumulated temperature; positive: day-length (DL)], days to maturity and 100-seed weight of the soybeans showed no significant correlation with any climatic conditions. The soybeans with a dominant Dt1 allele, except ‘Tawonkong’, had the longest stem length (STL). Moreover, STL of the soybeans grown in the test fields showed a positive correlation with only DL; however, the results of our chamber test that was conducted to complement the field tests showed that STL of soybean was positively affected by AVT and DL. Although soybean yield (YLD) showed positive correlations with latitude and DL (except L62-667, OT89-5, and OT89-6), the response of YLD to the climatic conditions was cultivar-specific. Our results show that DTF and STL of soybeans grown in six different latitudes are highly affected by DL, and AVT and genetic characteristic also affect DTF and STL. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Determination of Adaptable Sowing Dates of Waxy Corn Using Growing Degree Days in the Central Northern Area of Korea

    적산온도를 활용한 중북부지역 찰옥수수 적정파종기 설정

    Kang Bo Shim, Jong Ki Lee, Bon Il Koo, Myoung Na Shin, Sung Tak Yoon

    심강보, 이종기, 구본일, 신명나, 윤성탁

    It is important to determine sowing date as it decisively affects the quality as well as quantity of waxy corn. In the ... + READ MORE
    It is important to determine sowing date as it decisively affects the quality as well as quantity of waxy corn. In the central northern area of Korea, optimum sowing date of waxy corn is May and requires about 20–26 reproductive growth days from silking date to harvest. We determined adaptable sowing date of waxy corn varieties using growing degree days (GDDs), especially in the central northern area. Earlier sowing required many more emergence days owing to the low temperature. All waxy corn varieties required about 16~22 emergence days when sown in April. Otherwise, less than 15 emergence days were needed for sowing from May to August. Sowing dates to maximize ear yield of waxy corns were different depending on the eco-types of corn varieties as well as GDDs during the growth period. Early maturity type Mibaek2’ showed the highest ear yield at the May 15th sowing date. Middle maturity ‘Iimichal’ and late maturity ‘Chalok4’ showed the highest ear yield at the May 25th and June 5th sowing dates, respectively. GDDs of 26 days after silking was an index to determine the highest yield sowing date of ‘Mibaek2’. The total GDDs from sowing to harvest and to silking were other indexes to determine the highest yield sowing date of ‘Ilmichal’ and ‘Chalok4’, respectively. Generally, it required about 2,400°C GDDs from sowing date to maturity and at least 65 days of silking date from sowing to obtain about 1,200kg of ear yield of waxy corn in the central northern area of the Korean peninsula. The results of the study will be helpful for corn farmhouses to determine optimum sowing date of waxy corn in the central northern area of Korea. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019
  • Research Article

    Evaluations of Growth and Forage Quality of Sesbania Accessions Adaptable to Korean Environments

    국내적응 세스바니아의 생육특성 및 사료가치 평가

    Chang Min Lee, Young Jin Kim, Sol Ahn, Daniel Hailegioris, Cheong Ae Lee, Song-Joong Yun

    이창민, 김영진, 안솔, Daniel Hailegioris, 이정애, 윤성중

    Sesbania, an annual herb, is known for its high forage value and salt tolerance. It has merits as a forage crop that ... + READ MORE
    Sesbania, an annual herb, is known for its high forage value and salt tolerance. It has merits as a forage crop that is adaptable to reclaimed land in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, we collected Sesbania genetic resources from the Republic of Korea and other countries, and conducted experiments to evaluate their potential as a forage crop in Korean climate and soil conditions. In the preliminary experiments, 15 genetic resources which were able to set seeds in Korean environment were selected out of a total of 46 collected genetic resources. Among 15 genetic resources, SL13 was the tallest and it was followed by that of SC04, SR01 and SE07. The accessions with the earliest flowering started flowering 101 days after sowing and set seed in early August. Fifteen accessions were evaluated for their salt tolerance at germination stage based on germination rate and growth of germinated seedlings at 0 mM, 150 mM and 300 mM NaCl concentrations. Five genetic resources like SC04, SL13, SS20, SS24 and SR01 were selected to be tolerant to NaCl treatment. Forage value was evaluated based on crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The forage value of leaves was significantly higher than that of stems, and the forage value of the stem was slightly better than that of rice straw. The forage value of leaves of all the genetic resources was higher than grade 1 by the American Forage and Grassland Council grade. Among five selected genetic resources, the relative feed value of SC04 was the highest and it was followed by that of SS20, SL13, SS24 and SR01. - COLLAPSE
    September 2019