• Research Article

    Effect of Oxygen and Temperature Levels on the Seedling Characteristics of Korean and Anaerobic Germination-tolerant Rice under Flooding Conditions

    담수 직파에서 산소 및 온도조건에 따른 혐기발아 내성 자원과 국내 직파 적응성 벼 품종의 입모특성 비교

    Jong-Min Jeong, Jinhee Kim, Youngjun Mo, Su-Kyung Ha, Woo-Jae Kim, Bo-Kyeong Kim, and Ji-Ung Jeung

    정종민 ・ 김진희 ・ 모영준 ・ 하수경 ・ 김우재 ・ 김보경 ・ 정지웅

    The aim of the present study was to compare the germination and seedling characteristics of rice varieties grown under various flooding conditions ... + READ MORE
    The aim of the present study was to compare the germination and seedling characteristics of rice varieties grown under various flooding conditions and different temperature and oxygen levels and to identify germplasm suitable for wet direct seeding. Three anaerobic germination tolerant (AGT) genotypes (PBR, WD3, KHO) and eleven Korean rice varieties (KVs) adapted for direct seeding were evaluated for seedling performance under different temperatures (15, 18, 21, and 24°C) and oxygen levels (Low, Normal, High). Compared with the KVs, the AGT genotypes (especially KHO and PBR) exhibited relatively high germination and survival rates and coleoptile and radical growth rates under low temperature and low oxygen conditions, thereby indicating their suitability for wet direct seeding. Among the KVs, ‘Dongan,’ ‘Jungan,’ and ‘Cheongdam’ rice exhibited the highest survival rates under low temperature and low oxygen conditions. Three-way ANOVA indicated that temperature had the greater effects on seedling characteristics (43.2-78.0%) than either oxygen level (15.4-37.5%) or genotype (2.0-29.8%) did. Therefore, in direct seeding cultivation, temperature was the most important environmental factor for seedling establishment. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Screening of High-Palatability Rice Resources and Assessment of Eating Quality Traits of Korean Landraces and Weedy Rice Germplasms

    우리나라 재래벼와 잡초벼의 식미 특성 평가 및 고식미 우수자원 탐색

    Choon-Song Kim, Hyun-Su Park, Man-Kee Baek, Jong-Min Jeong, Suk-Man Kim, Seul-Gi Park, Jung-Pil Suh, Keon-Mi Lee, Chang-Min Lee, and Young-Chan Cho

    김춘송 ・ 박현수 ・ 백만기 ・ 정종민 ・ 김석만 ・ 박슬기 ・ 서정필 ・ 이건미 ・ 이창민 ・ 조영찬

    The eating quality of rice is one of the main concerns of rice breeding programs in many countries, especially in japonica rice ... + READ MORE
    The eating quality of rice is one of the main concerns of rice breeding programs in many countries, especially in japonica rice cultivation areas. To select new resources with high eating quality from Korean native japonica rice, we evaluated a total of 76 varieties, including 47 native rice resources (26 landraces + 21 weedy rice) of Korea. In this study, all eating quality traits varied widely among the native resources, and some of the native resources revealed a high evaluation score in the palatability, expected eating quality, and physicochemical traits among the tested whole-plant materials. From the results, we selected two landraces (Sangdo and Waebyeo) and three weedy rice varieties (Hoengseongaengmi3, Namjejuaengmi6, and Wandoaengmi6) as promising resources for improvement of rice eating quality. Specifically, Wandoaengmi6 presented potential as a key breeding material for improving the eating quality of Korean rice cultivars, having the best evaluation results in palatability score (PS 0.83) from the sensory test and glossiness value (GV 81.8) from the Toyo taste meter of cooked rice. Given the urgent need to overcome the constraint of the narrow genetic background of Korean japonica rice, the results could be a practical solution for exploring new opportunities for improving rice eating quality through the expansion of genetic resources. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Double Cropping Productivity of Main Whole-Crop Silage Rice and Winter Feed Crops in the Central Plains of Korea

    중부 평야지에서 사료용 벼와 주요 동계사료작물 이모작 시 생산성

    Eok-Keun Ahn, Eung-Gi Jeong, Hyang-Mi Park, Kuk-Hyun Jung, Ung-Jo Hyun, and Ja-Hwan Ku

    안억근 ・ 정응기 ・ 박향미 ・ 정국현 ・ 현웅조 ・ 구자환

    In order to establish an optimal double cropping system to obtain the maximum annual quantity, we investigated the annual productivity of whole-crop ... + READ MORE
    In order to establish an optimal double cropping system to obtain the maximum annual quantity, we investigated the annual productivity of whole-crop silage (WCS) rice, Jowoo (Jw), Yeongwoo (Yw), and Mogwoo (Mw), and winter feed crops (WFC), Italian ryegrass (IRG), Greenfarm (GF), rye Gogu (GU), and triticale Joseong (JS), in paddy fields of the central plains of Korea. From 2016 to 2019, each crop was subjected to two standard cultivation methods: WCS rice and WFC optimal. Using the WCS optimal mode, the average dry matter yield (DMY) of WCS rice, early flowering Jw, was 15.8 tons/ha and 21.0 for the mid-late heading Yw; there was no significant difference compared to the 19.2 tons/ha late-flowering Mw (p<0.01). The WFC were not significantly different between GF (3.2 tons/ha) and GU (4.5) sown on September 23rd, while JS was the highest at 12.6 tons/ha (p<0.001). There was a significant difference in the order of JS (16.6 tons/ha) > GF (10.5) > GU (4.7)(p<0.001) sown on October 11th. For JS sown on October 31st, the DMY was 11.8 tons/ha, which was significantly higher than that of the other two crops (p<0.05). Except for rye GU, DMY was the highest when sown on October 11th. For WFC optimal mode, the average DMY of JS was the highest at 18.3 tons/ha, which was significantly different from that of GF (10.9) and GU (9.6) (p<0.001). The DMY of WCS rice transplanted on May 10th was the highest at 23.0 tons/ha in Mw, which was not significantly different from that of Yw (21.4) but significantly different from that of Jw (15.9) (p<0.05). On transplanting on May 25th, the DMY of Mw was the highest at 24.2 tons/ha; this was not significantly different from that of Yw (20.7), but it was significantly different from that of Jw (18.6) (p<0.05). When transplanted on June 11th, the DMY was 21.3 tons/ha in Yw, which was significantly higher than the DMY of other two cultivars, Jw and Mw (p<0.05). For the WCS rice-WFC double cropping, the total annual DMY was 33.6 tons/ha with the combination of the WCS rice, Yw, and the triticale JS for WCS optimal mode. Meanwhile, the total annual DMY was 39.6 tons/ha with the combination of the triticale JS and the WCS rice, Yw, for WFC optimal mode. In conclusion, the strategies for obtaining the maximum yield of high-quality forage for WCS rice-WFC, WFC-WCS rice double cropping are as follows: 1) cultivation centered on the optimal mode of WFC, and 2) sowing the WFC, triticale JS in mid-October, harvesting the crops around the end of May and transplanting the WCS rice, Yw, in early June to obtain the maximum DMY of 39.6 tons/ha. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Studies on the Temperature Response and Critical Day-length Affecting the Heading Date of Major Cultivating Rice Varieties in Recent Korean Paddy Field

    농가재배 주요 벼 품종들의 출수에 영향을 미치는 온도 반응과 한계일장 구명 연구

    HyeonSeok Lee, WoonHa Hwang, JaeHyeok Jeong, SeoYeong Yang, YeonHwa Lim, MyoungGoo Choi, NamJin Jeong, ChungGen Lee, and KyungJin Choi

    이현석 ・ 황운하 ・ 정재혁 ・ 양서영 ・ 임연화 ・ 최명구 ・ 정남진 ・ 이충근 ・ 최경진

    Rice is sensitive to day-length and short-day plants. It has a characteristic that the photosensitivity response required for flower bud differentiation decreases ... + READ MORE
    Rice is sensitive to day-length and short-day plants. It has a characteristic that the photosensitivity response required for flower bud differentiation decreases under long-day conditions. To identify critical photoperiod required for flower bud differentiation of major cultivation rice varieties, the average temperature was fixed at 28 ℃, and the day length was set at 12 hours and 10 minutes intervals from 13 hours to 14 hours 30 minutes. The critical photoperiod for each cultivar was set to day-length, where the daily cumulative response [(X(Critical Photoperiod)-Y(Set day-length))/(X(Critical Photoperiod)-12:00(Optimal Day-length)) × (28.0(Set Temperature)-10(Minimum Temperature))/(29.2(Maximum Temperature)-10(Minimum Temperature))] was the same for each day-length conditions. The flower bud differentiation time of all varieties was 32 days before heading at the average temperature of 28 ℃ conditions. The critical photoperiod of the early maturing type, such as Woonkwang, Odae, Koshihikari, Jopyeong, were 19:20, 18:14, 18:58, 17:30, respectively. Medium maturing type, such as Daebo, Haiami, Samdeok, were 16:08, 16:15, 16:55, respectively. Mid-late maturing type, such as Saenuri, Sindongjin, Chucheong, Samkwang, Ilpum, Saeilmi, Hwangkeumnuri, Dongjinchal, Ilmi, Hopum, Yeonghojinmi, were 15:58, 15:56, 16:36, 16:44, 15:35, 16:26, 15:33, 16:20, 16:29, 16:13, 15:41. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Proper Growing Regions and Management Practices for Improving Production Stability in Direct-seeded Rice Cultivation

    벼 무논직파 재배 안정성 확보를 위한 조건 및 재배적지 설정

    Woon-Ha Hwang, Jae-Hyeok Jeong, Hyen-Seok Lee, Seo-Yeong Yang, Chung-Keun Lee, Yeon-Hwa Lim, Seung-Hyun Cho, Hyun-Kyung Min, Sang-Kuk Kim, Jin-Woo Nam, Yeo-Seul Choi, Youn-Sang Jo, and Kyung-Jin Choi

    황운하 ・ 정재혁 ・ 이현석 ・ 양서영 ・ 이충근 ・ 임연화 ・ 조승현 ・ 민현경 ・ 김상국 ・ 남진우 ・ 최예슬 ・ 조윤상 ・ 최경진

    Wet direct-seeding (WDS) is an important method for improving the competitiveness of rice production in South Korea. We analyzed the optimum direct-seeding ... + READ MORE
    Wet direct-seeding (WDS) is an important method for improving the competitiveness of rice production in South Korea. We analyzed the optimum direct-seeding date to establish the rice standing rate in each area and selected suitable areas for WHS by considering the heading stage limit date for improving cultivation safety. As a result, the rice direct-seeding date to control weedy rice was around 5.15, 5.17-5.19, and after 5.20 in southern Youngnam, southern Honam, and the Middle Coast areas, respectively. However, the optimum seeding date for good standing rice was in late March in most areas. Analyzing by area, most of the southern plains and parts of the central inland plain are suitable for WHS. However, most parts of Gwangwon-do, and the northern parts of Chungbuk, Gyeongbuk, and Yeonghonam areas are not suitable for WHS, and should therefore avoid WHS. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Change in Yield and Quality Characteristics of Rice by Drought Treatment Time during the Seedling Stage

    벼 이앙 직후 유묘기 한발 피해시기에 따른 수량 및 미질 특성 변화

    Sumin Jo, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Ji-Yoon Lee, Young-Ho Kwon, Ju-Won Kang, Sais-BeulLee, Tae-Heon Kim, Jong-Hee Lee, Dong-Soo Park, Jeom-Sig Lee, and Jong-Min Ko

    조수민 ・ 조준현 ・ 이지윤 ・ 권영호 ・ 강주원 ・ 이샛별 ・ 김태헌 ・ 이종희 ・ 박동수 ・ 이점식 ・ 고종민

    Drought stress caused by global climate change is a serious problem for rice cultivation. Increasingly frequent abnormal weather occurrences could include severe ... + READ MORE
    Drought stress caused by global climate change is a serious problem for rice cultivation. Increasingly frequent abnormal weather occurrences could include severe drought, which could cause water stress to rice during the seedling stage. This experiment was conducted to clarify the effects of drought during the seedling period on yield and quality of rice. Drought conditions were created in a rain shelter house facility. The drought treatment was conducted at 3, 10, and 20 days after transplanting. Soil water content was measured by a soil moisture sensor during the whole growth stage. In this study, we have chosen 3 rice cultivars which are widely cultivated in Korea: ‘Haedamssal’ (Early maturing), ‘Samkwang’ (Medium maturing), and ‘Saenuri’ (Mid-late maturing). The decrease in yield due to drought treatment was most severe 3 days after transplanting because of the decrease in the number of effective tillers. The decrease in grain quality due to drought treatment was also most severe 3 days after transplanting because of the increased protein content and hardness of the grains. The cultivar ‘Haedamssal’ was the most severely damaged by water stress, resulting in about a 30% yield loss. Drought conditions diminished the early vigorous growth period and days to heading in early-maturing cultivars. The results show that drought stress affects yield components immediately after transplanting, which is a decisive factor in reducing yield and grain quality. This study can be used as basic data to calculate damage compensation for drought damage on actual rice farms. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Statistical Analysis of Protein Content in Wheat Germplasm Based on Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    밀 유전자원의 근적외선분광분석 예측모델에 의한 단백질 함량 변이분석

    Sejong Oh, Yu Mi Choi, Hyemyeong Yoon, Sukyeung Lee, Eunae Yoo, Do Yoon Hyun, Myoung-Jae Shin, Myung Chul Lee, and Byungsoo Chae

    오세종 ・ 최유미 ・ 윤혜명 ・ 이수경 ・ 유은애 ・ 현도윤 ・ 신명재 ・ 이명철 ・ 채병수

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) prediction model was set to establish a rapid analysis system of wheat germplasm and provide statistical information ... + READ MORE
    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) prediction model was set to establish a rapid analysis system of wheat germplasm and provide statistical information on the characteristics of protein contents. The variability index value (VIV) of calibration resources was 0.80, the average protein content was 13.2%, and the content range was from 7.0% to 13.2%. After measuring the near-infrared spectra of calibration resources, the NIRS prediction model was developed through a regression analysis between protein content and spectra data, and then optimized by excluding outliers. The standard error of calibration, R2, and the slope of the optimized model were 0.132, 0.997, and 1.000 respectively, and those of external validation results were 0.994, 0.191, and 1.013, respectively. Based on these results, a developed NIRS model could be applied to the rapid analysis of protein in wheat. The distribution of NIRS protein content of 6,794 resources were analyzed using a normal distribution analysis. The VIV was 0.79, the average protein was 12.1%, and the content range of resources accounting for 42.1% and 68% of the total accessions were 10-13% and 9.5-14.6%, respectively. The composition of total resources was classified into breeding line (3,128), landrace (2,705), and variety (961). The VIV in breeding line was 0.80, the protein average was 11.8%, and the contents of 68% of total resources ranged from 9.2% to 14.5%. The VIV in landrace was 0.76, the protein average was 12.1%, and the content range of resources of 68% of total accessions was 9.8-14.4%. The VIV in variety was 0.80, the protein average was 12.8%, and the accessions representing 68% of total resources ranged from 10.2% to 15.4%. These results should be helpful to the related experts of wheat breeding. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Enhancement of Cookie Quality by Microwave Treatment of Allergy Reaction-reduced “Ofree” Wheat Flour

    마이크로웨이브 조사를 통한 알러지 저감 밀 오프리의 제과 가공적성 개선

    JinHee Park, Young-Mi Yoon, Jae-Han Son, Chang-Hyun Choi, Kyeong-Hoon Kim, Kyeong-Min Kim, Young-Keun Cheong, Chon-Sick Kang, and Jinwoo Yang

    박진희 ・ 윤영미 ・ 손재한 ・ 최창현 ・ 김경훈 ・ 김경민 ・ 정영근 ・ 강천식 ・ 양진우

    The use of flour milled from the Ofree wheat cultivar for baking attenuates allergies because some of the genes related to the ... + READ MORE
    The use of flour milled from the Ofree wheat cultivar for baking attenuates allergies because some of the genes related to the allergic reaction have been knocked because some of its genes related to allergic reactions have been knocked down or knocked out through genetic mutation. However, the utilization of this flour is limited because the Ofree grain contains high content of total protein and gluten. Microwave irradiation has been used for changing the protein and gluten characteristics of wheat flour. Thus, this study investigated appropriate conditions of microwave irradiation to enhance the utilization of Ofree flour. As a result, when the flour was microwave-treated for 2 min, although the total protein and gluten contents were not changed, some qualities of the baked sugar-snap cookies, such as spread factor (diameter and thickness) and appearance (crack), were ameliorated. However, excessive heat treatment of the flour for over 3 min led to protein denaturation, which negatively affected the quality of the products. These results indicate that 2 min of microwave irradiation of flour that has high content of total protein and gluten can be used for the enhancement of cookie quality. Therefore, these results are expected to increase the utilization of Ofree wheat flour. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Identification of the Protein Function and Comparison of the Protein Expression Patterns of Wheat Addition Lines with Wild Rye Chromosomes

    야생 호밀 염색체 첨가 밀 계통의 단백질 발현 양상 비교 분석

    Dae Han Lee, Kun Cho, Sun Hee Woo, and Seong-Woo Cho

    이대한 ・ 조건 ・ 우선희 ・ 조성우

    The objectives of this study were to compare the protein expression patterns and degrees and identify the protein function of disomic addition ... + READ MORE
    The objectives of this study were to compare the protein expression patterns and degrees and identify the protein function of disomic addition lines (DAs) in Leymus racemosus, in order to improve the quality of wheat. Upon SDS-PAGE, L. racemosus showed two major protein bands whereas Chinese Spring (CS) had four major protein bands of high molecular weight. The DA(s) generally showed a similar protein expression pattern to that of CS, because 42 chromosomes were from CS and two chromosomes were from L. racemosus. However, only the L.r[J] line showed two protein bands of between 15 and 20 kDa, like L. racemosus. Image analysis based on 2-DE revealed that L.r[F] had the most upregulated protein spots, whereas L.r[N] had the least upregulated protein spots. For L.r[I], the frequency of the downregulated protein spots was higher than that of the upregulated ones. Using MALDI-TOF MS, the protein function was identified for each protein spot on the 2-DE polyacrylamide gel. The protein spots were classified into 11 groups according to protein function. Among the 11 groups, most protein spots of the DA(s) were identified as proteins related to metabolism. Additionally, unique protein spots of the DA(s) were related to abiotic stressors such as cold and heat. Those proteins are useful for improving wheat quality with resistance against abiotic stressors. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effect of Temperature on Growth and Related Gene Expression in Alternative Type Wheat Cultivars

    양절형 밀 생장에 대한 온도의 영향과 유전자 발현 양상

    Ji Hye Heo, Hye Ju Seong, Woon Ho Yang, and Woosuk Jung

    허지혜 ・ 성혜주 ・ 양운호 ・ 정우석

    We have investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the growth of wheat in Korea. The differences in the growth phase of ... + READ MORE
    We have investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the growth of wheat in Korea. The differences in the growth phase of wheat were compared according to the temperature treatment. The productive tiller number and dry weight were decreased in a plot under a higher temperature treatment. We found that the growth of Jinpum was different from that of the alternative wheat cultivars, which were bred in Korea, at 50 days after treatment. While the Jinpum wheat grown at 17°C showed vegetative stage growth, that grown in the 23°C growth chamber entered the heading and flowering stage. The differences in the expression of 16 genes known to be involved in high-temperature responses were checked by using Jinpum wheat 50 days after two temperature treatments (17°C and 23°C), which showed apparent differences in expression between the higher and lower temperatures during the growth phase. In the 23°C treatment samples, the genes with increased expression were HSP70, HSP101, VRN2, ERF1, TAA1, YUCCA2, GolS, MYB73, and Histone H2A, while the genes with decreased expression were VRN-A1, DREB2A, HsfA3, PIF4, PhyB, HSP17.6CII, rbcL, and MYB73. YUCCA2, HSP101, ERF1, and VRN-A1 showed a significant difference in gene expression between lower- and higher-temperature conditions. Overall, combining the means of the expression of various genes involved in thermosensing, vernalization, and abiotic stresses, it is possible to conclude that different sets of genes are involved in vernalization and summer depression of wheat under long term, high ambient temperature conditions. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of High Temperature on Soybean Physiology, Protein and Oil Content, and Yield

    콩에 있어서 온도 상승이 생물 계절, 수량구성요소, 단백질 및 지방함량 영향 평가

    Yun-Ho Lee, Wan-Gyu Sang, Jung-Il Cho, and Myung-Chul Seo

    이윤호 ・ 상완규 ・ 조정일 ・ 서명철

    A recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected that the global average surface temperature will increase by a value ... + READ MORE
    A recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected that the global average surface temperature will increase by a value 1.5°C from 2030 to 2052. In this study, we used a temperature gradient chamber that mimicked field conditions to evaluate the effect of increased air temperature on phenology, yield components, protein content, and oil content, to assess soybean growth. In 2017 and 2018, ‘Deawonkong’, ‘Pungsannamulkong’, and ‘Deapungkong’ cultivars were grown in three temperature gradient chambers. Four temperature treatment groups were established by dividing the rows along temperature regimes: ambient temperature + 1°C (aT+1), ambient temperature + 2°C (aT+2), ambient temperature + 3°C (aT+3), ambient temperature + 4°C (aT+4). Year, cultivar, and temperature treatments significantly affected yield components and seed yield. In 2017, the flowering stage of ‘Deawon’ and ‘Pungsannamul’ cultivars in the aT+4 group was delayed compared to the flowering stage of those in the aT+1 group. In 2018, the flowering stage of ‘Deawon’ and ‘Pungsannamul’ was delayed at all temperature gradients, owing to high temperature stress, whereas ‘Deapung’ was regularly flowering in 2017 and 2018. The duration of the grain filling period was six days shorter in 2018 than in 2017 because of high temperature stress. The total number of pods per m2 for ‘Deawon’ and ‘Pungsannamul’ was 48.8 and 41.5% lower in 2018 than in 2017, respectively, whereas ‘Deapung’ increased by 6.3%. The 100-seed weight of ‘Deawon’ and ‘Deapung’ was 29.2 and 32.1% lower, respectively. However, ‘Pungsannamul’ decreased by 14.7%. The protein and oil content was lower during the grain filling period in 2018 than in the same period in 2017 because of high temperature stress. In contrast, the oil content in ‘Deapung’ was higher in 2018 than in 2017. Our results showed that increased temperature during the grain filling period was significantly and negatively correlated with pod number, 100-seed weight, protein content, and oil content. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Growth Period and Cumulative Temperature on Flowering, Ripening and Yield of Soybean by Sowing Times

    파종시기별 생육일수 및 적산온도 변화가 콩의 개화, 등숙 및 수량에 미치는 영향

    Jae Eun Lee, Gun Ho Jung, Sung Kook Kim, Min Tae Kim, Su Hyeon Shin, and Weon Tai Jeon

    이재은 ・ 정건호 ・ 김성국 ・ 김민태 ・ 신수현 ・ 전원태

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of different sowing times on the flowering and maturing of major soybean ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of different sowing times on the flowering and maturing of major soybean cultivars by varying day length and temperature in the central plain region. The average of growth period and cumulative temperature in five test cultivars by sowing times were 121 days and 2,972°C on June 1, respectively and gradually decreased to 85 days, 2,042°C, respectively on July 20. Analysis of the flowering response according to the sowing times showed that flowering was greatly influenced by the decrease of photoperiod until the sowing on July 10, and the minimum number of days for flowering were 27 days, 36 days, respectively in early and mid-rate maturing type in the central plain region. Daepung 2 is classified to the same ecotype with Daewonkong, the total number of growing days was not different between two cultivars, but ripening period (R2-R6) was longer by 5 days and yield was higher by 11% in Daepung 2. The maturity rate was also high and safe enough to maintain more than 90% through the entire sowing times. This ecological characteristic can be usefully applied as a section index for breeding environmental stress resistant and high yielding soybean varieties. The yield of 4 domestic cultivars (except TI196944) sowing on July 20 were 85~92% levels compared to sowing on June 20. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Variation in Pod Shattering in a RIL Population and Selection for Pod Shattering Tolerance in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]

    콩 RIL 집단의 내탈립성 변이 탐색 및 유망계통 선발

    Jeong Hyun Seo, Beom Kyu Kang, Hyun Tae Kim, Hong Sik Kim, Man Soo Choi, Jae Hyeon Oh, Sang Ouk Shin1, In Youl Baek2, and Do Yeon Kwak

    서정현 ・ 강범규 ・ 김현태 ・ 김홍식 ・ 최만수 ・ 오재현 ・ 신상욱 ・ 백인열 ・ 곽도연

    Pod shattering during the maturing stage causes a serious yield loss in soybean. It is the main limiting factor of soybean cultivation ... + READ MORE
    Pod shattering during the maturing stage causes a serious yield loss in soybean. It is the main limiting factor of soybean cultivation and mechanization. It is important to develop varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting and to develop energy-efficient agricultural machinery to save labor and costs. ‘Daewonkong,’ developed by the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 1997, is an elite cultivar that occupies more than 80% of the soybean cultivation area in Korea because of its strong tolerance to pod shattering. The objectives of this study were to investigate the variation in pod shattering degree in a RIL population developed from a ‘Daewonkong’ parent and to select promising lines with pod shattering tolerance. ‘Daewonkong’ demonstrated a high level of tolerance to pod shattering compared to the ‘Tawonkong’ and ‘Saeolkong’ varieties, with no shattered pods after 72 hours of drying. Screening of pod shattering showed a clear distinction between the tolerant and susceptible varieties. Also, the distribution of shattering pod ratio in the two populations showed a similar pattern for three years. The promising lines with pod shattering tolerance included 27 lines in the ‘Daewonkong’בTawonkong’ population and 21 lines in the ‘Daewonkong’בSaeolkong’ population. The promising lines are expected to be widely used as breeding parents for creating soybean cultivars with pod shattering tolerance. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Physiological and Proteome Responses of Korean F1 maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids to Water-deficit Stress during Tassel Initiation

    옥수수 영양생장기 한발 스트레스에 의한 광합성의 생리적 반응 및 프로테옴 변화 분석

    Hwan Hee Bae, Young-Sang Kwon, Beom-Young Son, Jung-Tae Kim, Young Sam Go, Sun-Lim Kim, Seong-Bum Baek, Seonghyu Shin, and Sang Gon Kim

    배환희 ・ 권영상 ・ 손범영 ・ 김정태 ・ 고영삼 ・ 김선림 ・ 백성범 ・ 신성휴 ・ 김상곤

    Severe droughts in spring have occurred frequently in Korea in recent years, exerting a critical impact on corn yield. Therefore, it is ... + READ MORE
    Severe droughts in spring have occurred frequently in Korea in recent years, exerting a critical impact on corn yield. Therefore, it is necessary to find physiological and/or molecular indicators of the response to drought stress in maize plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-deficit stress on two Korean elite F1 maize hybrids, Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, by withholding water for 10 days at tassel initiation. The water deficit drastically reduced the relative leaf water content, leaf number, leaf area, and stem length, leading to dry matter reduction. Moreover, it reduced the SPAD values and stomatal conductance of leaves in drought-stressed plants of both hybrids. Importantly, the number of leaves and SPAD value were non-destructive and easy to investigate in response to water-deficit stress, suggesting that they may be useful indicators for screening drought-tolerant genetic resources. We detected more than 100 spots that were differentially accumulated under drought stress. Of these spots, a total of 21 protein spots (≥1.5-fold) from drought-exposed maize leaves were successfully analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Functional annotation using Gene Ontology analysis revealed that most of the identified proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response fatty acid catabolism, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and transport. The protein expression levels were increased in both Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, except for triosephosphate isomerase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and an uncharacterized protein. The lactoylglutathione lyase delta (3,5)-delta (2,4)- dienoyl-CoA isomerase was overexpressed in Gwangpyeongok only. The results obtained from this study suggest that the drought-specific genes may be useful as molecular markers for screening drought-tolerant maize genotypes. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Identification of Candidate Transcripts Related to Drought Stress using Secondary Traits and qRT-PCR in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)
    Hyo Chul Kim, Kitae Song, Jun-Cheol Moon, Jae Yoon Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim, and Byung-Moo Lee
    Global climate change exerts adverse effects on maize production. Among abiotic stresses, drought stress during the tasseling stage (VT) can increase anthesis-silking ... + READ MORE
    Global climate change exerts adverse effects on maize production. Among abiotic stresses, drought stress during the tasseling stage (VT) can increase anthesis-silking intervals (ASI) and decrease yield. We performed an evaluation of ASI and yield using a drought-sensitive line (Ki3) and a drought-tolerant line (Ki11) to analyze the correlation with ASI and yield. Moreover, the de novo data of Ki11 were analyzed to find putative novel transcripts related todrought stress in tropical maize. A total of 182 transcripts, with a log2 ratio >1.5, were found by comparing drought conditions to a control. The top 40 transcripts of high expression levels in the de novo analysis were selected and analyzed with PCR. Of the 40 transcripts, six novel transcripts were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using seedling and VT stage samples. Five transcripts (transcripts_1, 12, 34, 35, and 40) were up-regulated in the Ki11 shoot at seedling stage, and transcripts_1, 12, and 40 were up-regulated at the re-watering stage after 12 h of drought stress. The transcripts_32 and 34 were up-regulated at the VT stage. Hence, transcript_34 possibly plays a significant role in drought tolerance during the seedling and VT stages. The transcript_32 was identified as chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) by Pfam domain analysis. The function of the other transcripts remained unknown. Further characterization of these novel transcripts in genetic regulation will be of great value for the improvement of maize production. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Crop Characteristics of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Germplasms for Optimizing the Selection of Resources

    우수자원 선발을 위한 고구마 유전자원의 주요 특성 평가

    Won Park, Hyeong-Un Lee, San Goh, Im Been Lee, Sang-Sik Nam, Mi Nam Chung, Gyeong-Dan Yu, Eom-Ji Hwang, Seungyong Lee, Jin Cheon Park, Narayan Chandra Paul1, and Seon-Kyeong Han

    박원 ・ 이형운 ・ 고산 ・ 이임빈 ・ 남상식 ・ 정미남 ・ 유경단 ・ 황엄지 ・ 이승용 ・ 박진천 ・ 나라얀찬드라폴 ・ 한선경

    This study was conducted to investigate the crop characteristics of 181 sweetpotato germplasms collected from Korea and overseas. The longest shoot vine ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate the crop characteristics of 181 sweetpotato germplasms collected from Korea and overseas. The longest shoot vine length was observed in IT232211 (354.8 cm) and the shortest shoot vine length was observed in IT232185 (32 cm). The maximum numbers of shoot branches and nodes were produced by IT232091 (23.0) and IT232174 (67.8), respectively. Differences in Rapid Visco Analyser profiles were observed for pasting parameters such peak, trough, final, breakdown, and setback viscosities; and pasting temperature. The peak and breakdown viscosities were highest in IT232050 and IT232010, at 338.3 and 207.2 Rapid Visco Unit (RVU), respectively. The trough viscosity was lowest in IT232019 at 103.8 RVU. IT232101 had the highest final viscosity (284.6 RVU), and IT232192 had the highest setback viscosity (81.7 RVU). IT232197 had the highest pasting temperature at 86.8°C, and that of IT232134 was lowest at 72.7°C. To evaluate functional substance content, we analyzed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total polyphenol content. The highest frequency proportion of starch was in the 10%-15% range (50.8% of the plants), followed by the 5%-10% range (38.1% of the germplasms). Sugar content ranged from 13.5 to 33.3% (23.2% on average); the highest frequency proportion of sugar was in the 20%-25% range (56.9% of the germplasms), followed by the 25%-30% range (25.4% of the germplasms). The highest frequency proportion of water was in the 70%-80% range (52.5% of the germplasms), followed by the 60%-70% range (44.2% of the germplasms). Our results provide basic data for the selection of useful resources and for the development of new sweetpotato varieties. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Validation of a Method and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity for the Simultaneous Determination of Riboflavin and Coixol in Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Stapf Sprouts

    율무 새싹 추출물의 Riboflavin과 Coixol의 동시 분석법 검증 및 항산화 활성

    Ji Yeon Lee, Jung Yong Park, Chun-Geon Park, Dong Hwi Kim, Yun-Jeong Ji, Su Ji Choi, MyeongWon Oh, Hosop Hwang, Yunji Lee, Jintae Jeong, Jeong Hoon Lee, and Kyung Hye Seo

    이지연 ・ 박정용 ・ 박춘근 ・ 김동휘 ・ 지윤정 ・ 최수지 ・ 오명원 ・ 황호섭 ・ 이윤지 ・ 정진태 ・ 이정훈 ・ 서경혜

    Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf (CL), which contains riboflavin and coixol, has traditionally been used to treat cancer and arthritis ... + READ MORE
    Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf (CL), which contains riboflavin and coixol, has traditionally been used to treat cancer and arthritis. However, no method for the simultaneous determination of riboflavin and coixol in CL sprouts has been established. In this study, we established and validated a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the identification and quantification of two reference markers, riboflavin and coixol, in CL sprout extracts. CL sprouts (whole sprouts and leaves) were subjected to extraction with 70% ethanol at room temperature and at 80 °C under reflux conditions. The two extractions were validated with respect to specificity, accuracy, precision, and linearity. The content of the two reference markers was highest in leaves extracted under reflux conditions (riboflavin, 8.23 ± 0.32 mg/g; coixol, 5.95 ± 0.04 mg/g). We also investigated the antioxidant activity of the extracts via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) scavenging assays. The results indicated that extracts obtained from sprouts under reflux conditions had the strongest antioxidative effects (DPPH half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68.9 ± 4.1 g/mL; and ABTS, IC50, 34.9 ± 0.1 g/mL). These results can serve as baseline data for the simultaneous determination of the two reference marker compounds, riboflavin and coixol, and development of functional food materials using CL sprouts. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Changes in Growing Period and Productivity under Double Cropping of Spring Potato and Summer Cereals in Paddy Fields of Southern Korea

    남부지역 논에서 봄감자와 하작물 이모작에 따른 생육기간 및 생산성 변화

    Jong-Ho Seo, Chung-Dong Hwang, Weon-Young Choi, Hyeon-Kyung Bae, Sang-Yeol Kim, and Seong-Hwan Oh

    서종호 ・ 황정동 ・ 최원영 ・ 배현경 ・ 김상열 ・ 오성환

    Changes in growing periods and productivities of crops under double cropping of potato-rice, potato-soybean and potato-maize, were investigated at the Paddy Experimental ... + READ MORE
    Changes in growing periods and productivities of crops under double cropping of potato-rice, potato-soybean and potato-maize, were investigated at the Paddy Experimental Fields in Miryang City from 2015 to 2018. Spring potatoes planted in early March showed a yield of 2.1-2.3 ton/10a and a period of 90 days. In double cropping, growing period of rice, soybean, and maize was about 130, 125 and 115 days, respectively. The potato yield obtained was as much as 616, 330 and 815 kg/10a under double cropping with rice, soybean and maize, respectively. It is beneficial to sow the spring potatoes as early as possible to increase the yield and to secure the growing period of sequential crops. The introduction of summer medium-late variety grain crops into double cropping of spring potato and rice as well as into double cropping of spring potato and soybean/maize, was possible because of no sowing in the fall and plants were able to reach the heading growth stage before the safe heading limit of rice in particular. In the case of maize, the growth period was different according to the change in temperature over the year. The introduction of upland crops such as soybeans and maize instead of rice improved soil physicochemical properties in a short period of time, contributing to the increase of spring potato yields, but there was also a risk of damage by successive cropping for more than three years. Spring potato-maize showed higher yield in terms of starch production, and spring potato-soybean was found to be advantageous for net income. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019