• Research Article

    Multivariate Analysis of Variation of Growth and Quality Characteristics in Colored Rice Germplasm

    유색미 도입 유전자원의 생육 및 품질특성 변이 다변량 분석

    Jong-Hyun Park, Ji-Yoon Lee, Jae-Buhm Chun, Oh-Jong You, and Eun-Ho Son

    박종현, 이지윤, 전재범, 유오종†, 손은호†

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of growth and quality characteristics in colored rice from 178 accessions and ... + READ MORE
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of growth and quality characteristics in colored rice from 178 accessions and to develop useful, basic rice breeding data by classifying these germplasm characteristics via principal component (PC) analysis. The coefficient of variation of the 178colored rice accessions were the highest for panicle length (PL) and protein contents, followed by length-width ratio (LWR), 1000-grain weight (TGW), culm length (CL), and amylose contents, whereas the lowest was for the number of panicles per hill (NP), which is a yield component. The results from the PC analysis exhibited eigenvalues and contributions respective to each PC as follows: PC1, 2.06 and 29.49%; PC2, 1.31 and 18.75%; PC3, 1.21 and 17.36%; PC4, 1.01 and 14.38%. The eigenvalues of four PCs were over 1.0, and their cumulative contributions were 79.98%, which completes the necessary condition for evaluation of the 178 colored rice accessions. Cluster analysis showed cluster I as the largest, which included 79 accessions, while clusters II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII comprised 46, 19, 13, 4, 8, and 9 accessions, respectively. Moreover, dark brown accessions were dispersed in clusters I and II, and many resources of purple seed coat color were found in clusters V, VI, and VII. Particularly, cluster V had resources of only black and purple seed coat colors. Resources of cluster VII were found to have a relatively small average CL, PL, and LWR; notably, cluster V had the smallest average TGW, and cluster IV the lowest NP but the highest TGW. Finally, considering the yield potential, growth characteristics, heading stage, and color during breeding of colored rice, we obtained the following conclusions: cluster VII is suitable for breeding of colored rice; cross breeding among clusters I, II, and VII has a high yield potential; and it is possible to produce a superior color by cross breeding plants from cluster V and VI. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Comparative Analysis on the Biomass Production between Machine-Transplanted and Water-Broadcast Seeded Silage Rice in the Central Plain Area of Korea

    중부 평야지에서 사료용 벼 기계이앙과 담수산파 재배의 건물 생산성 비교 분석

    Woonho Yang, Jeong-Hwa Park, Shingu Kang, Sukjin Kim, and Jong-Seo Choi

    양운호, 박정화, 강신구, 김숙진, 최종서

    A field study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2014 to 2016 in the central plain area, Suwon, Korea, 1) to ... + READ MORE
    A field study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2014 to 2016 in the central plain area, Suwon, Korea, 1) to compare the biomass production between machine-transplanted and water-broadcast seeded silage rice and 2) to elucidate the growth factors that affect the difference in biomass production between the two cultivation practices. The heading date for the water-broadcast seeded silage rice was September 11-18, which was delayed by 11-17 days when compared to that for the machine-transplanted silage rice. On average, water-broadcast seeded silage rice had a shorter plant height, more panicles per area, and a greater biomass production because of the increased straw dry weight. However, the difference in dry weight of each plant organ between the two cultivation practices exhibited yearly variation. When the data were pooled across experimental years, cultivation practices, and varieties, biomass production was highly positively correlated with straw dry weight but not with panicle dry weight. When the ratio of water-broadcast seeding to machine-transplanting was analyzed, total dry weight and straw dry weight were positively associated with each other, whereas no relationship was found between total dry weight and panicle dry weight. Despite that water-broadcast seeded silage rice produced more panicles per area than machine-transplanted silage rice, the two cultivation practices had a similar dry weight per culm. Therefore, we conclude that the silage rice from the water-broadcast seeding, compared to the machine-transplanting, produced more biomass because of the combination of the increased panicle number per area and a similar dry weight per culm. These results suggest that silage rice could be produced through water-broadcast seeding to increase biomass production with low labor and cost input. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Evaluation of Various Characteristics of High Quality Rice Varieties That Could Potentially be Grown on Reclaimed Land in Jellabuk Province, Korea

    전북지역 간척지에서 최고품질 벼 품종의 작물학적․이화학적 특성 비교 및 선발

    Chang-Hak Choi, Kab-Cheol Kim, Deok-Ryeol Lee, Seung-Hyun Cho, Dae-Ho Cho, Song-Yi Lee, and In-Sok Lee

    최창학, 김갑철, 이덕렬, 조승현, 조대호, 이송이, 이인석

    The main objective of this study was to identify the best quality rice for cultivation on reclaimed land in Jeollabukdo-Province based on ... + READ MORE
    The main objective of this study was to identify the best quality rice for cultivation on reclaimed land in Jeollabukdo-Province based on yield, head rice ratio, protein content, amylose content, and Toyo taste value evaluations. Seven varieties of rice were grown for two years on the reclaimed land. The Sukwang variety had the earliest heading date. The tiller number for the Younghojinmi variety was 19 on average, and its variation in tiller number was the lowest, which showed that the safety for cultivation of the variety was high on the reclaimed land with respect to that of the other varieties. The culm and panicle lengths of the Sukwang and Hyunpum varieties were the highest at 81.8 and 21.3 ㎝, respectively. Shindongjin produced the highest thousand grain weight at 27.7 g, whereas Haepum produced the lowest at 22.3 g. The number of grains per panicle for 7 all varieties was statistically equal for both years. The yield order for the varieties was Shindongjin (590) > Hopum (575) > Younghojinmi (552) > Sukwang (551) > Hopum (543) > Mipum (534) > Haepum (498 kg/10a), which showed that there was no significant difference in average yield between the varieties when both years are taken into consideration. However, the annual difference in Haepum yield between 2015 and 2016 was the highest at 108 kg/10a, indicating low cultivation safety. The head rice ratio of Younghojinmi was higher than for the other cultivars in both 2015 and 2016. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 years when the averages for all varieties were analyzed. There was was a considerable difference in protein and amylose content between the varieties in the two years, although this was not apparent in the results when the average over 2 years for each variety was calculated. There was no significant difference between the two years with respect to the average head rice ratio, and the protein and amylose contents of the seven varieties. The Toyo taste values for the Sukwang and Mipum varieties were higher than for the other varieties. Based on the principle characteristics, such as Toyo value, the Sukwang variety is a suitable substitute for Shindongjin, which has been previously used to produce high-quality rice on the reclaimed land. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Optimal Transplanting Time for ‘Saemimyeon’ Production in Youngnam Province

    영남지방에서 쌀면용 새미면 최대생산을 위한 이앙적기 설정

    Hyun Kyung Bae, Jung Dong Hwang, Jong Ho Seo, and Sang Yeol Kim

    배현경, 황정동, 서종호, 김상열

    ‘Saemimyeon,’ a Tongil-type rice variety (Indica x Japonica), containing high amylose content, is suitable for rice noodle production. Currently, the major parts ... + READ MORE
    ‘Saemimyeon,’ a Tongil-type rice variety (Indica x Japonica), containing high amylose content, is suitable for rice noodle production. Currently, the major parts of the rice processing industry that include products such as rice flour and noodles are expected to partially replace the wheat flour market. The volume of the rice noodle market is growing and can contribute to the rice surplus problems and farmer’s income. This study was carried out to promote productivity of ‘Saemimyeon’ by finding the most suitable transplanting times in Youngnam Province. The transplanting times were May 10th, May 17th, May 24th, May 31th, June 7th, and June 14th and the planting distance was 30 × 12 cm. The field experiment was conducted in the Miryang region (southern plain region of Korea) from 2015 to 2017. Our results suggested that the optimum transplanting dates were from May 17th to May 31th, which resulted in an average yield of 750 kg/10 a. The average grain filling rate before May 31th was more than 83% and it declined to 75% after June 7th. The average temperature range from heading to harvesting time was 21~25°C and the estimated optimal temperature was 24°C, which is similar to that of May 24th by regression equation. It is suggested that low temperature at seed maturation time caused the lower grain filling rate, and therefore ‘Saemimyeon’ needed to be transplanted before May 31th for higher productivity. Estimated optimal transplanting time based on temperature was 1 ~ 2 weeks earlier than the optimum transplanting time for common japonica rice cultivars in Youngnam Province. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Influence of Different Transplanting Dates on Amylopectin Branch-chain-length and Pasting Properties of Rice Flour Varieties
    Chae-Min Han, Jong-Hee Shin, Sang-Kuk Kim, Tae-Young Kwon, and Jong-Sang KIM
    This study was conducted to examine the influence of different transplanting dates on rice quality and starch properties (morphology and pasting properties) ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to examine the influence of different transplanting dates on rice quality and starch properties (morphology and pasting properties) of rice varieties that may be used for the production of rice flour. Three rice flour varieties, ‘Seolgaeng’, ‘Hangaru’, and ‘Milyang317’, were transplanted on May 20, May 30, June 10, and June 20. The peak viscosity decreased with a delay in the transplanting date. However, the amylose content increased with a delay in the transplanting date, whereas that of protein decreased. Amylopectin short-branch chain content increased in the rice varieties that were transplanted on May 30. The morphology of the starch granule of the varieties was determined by SEM. No apparent external difference in the starch granules was observed for the different transplanting dates. These results indicate that the transplanting date influenced the amylopectin structure and pasting properties, which led to changes in the physicochemical characteristics of rice starch. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant Activities in Germinated and Non-germinated Seeds of Korean Weedy Rice
    Ei Ei Cho, Jung-Sun Baek, and Nam-Jin Chung
    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa) is a semi-wild rice grown in paddy fields and is more adapted to the environment than cultivated rice. ... + READ MORE
    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa) is a semi-wild rice grown in paddy fields and is more adapted to the environment than cultivated rice. Therefore, it is expected that the seeds of weedy rice might contain some chemicals related to its environmental adaptation, such as antioxidants, which may be useful for nutritional and medicinal purposes. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activities of weedy rice compared to a Korean-bred rice cultivar, Sindongjin (SDJ), and to screen lines that show higher antioxidant activity in 199 accessions of weedy rice germplasm collected in Korea. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity ranged from 31.0 to 91.7%, with an average of 82.5%, and 19 accessions that showed more than 91% antioxidant activity were selected. The 19 accessions were re-screened against non-germinated brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) using four assays, total phenol determination, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and reducing power activities. The results showed that accession ‘WD3’ had the highest antioxidant capacity in both BR and GBR, suggesting that WD3 is a promising potential source of antioxidants and could be developed as a potentially functional substance material. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Influence of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Levels and Application Timing on Gluten Fraction and Bread Loaf Volume During Grain Filling

    빵용 밀 품종의 등숙기 질소 시비 시기와 양이 글루텐 분획 및 빵 부피에 미치는 영향

    Seong-Woo Cho, Taek-Gyu Kang, Chul Soo Park, Jae-Han Son, Chang-Hyun Choi, Young-Keun Cheong, Young-Mi Yoon, Kyong-Ho Kim, and Chon-Sik Kang

    조성우, 강택규, 박철수, 손재한, 최창현, 정영근, 윤영미, 김경호, 강천식

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization amount and timing of application on protein content, dough ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization amount and timing of application on protein content, dough properties, change in protein fraction, and bread loaf volume for Korean wheat cultivars, Baekkang, Joongmo2008, and Saekeumkang, for bread with a superior gluten composition during the grain filling stage. Protein content increased with an increase in the amount of N and timing of application. The SDS segmentation volume (SDSS) increased with an increase in N, but there was no effect of the timing of N application on SDSS. An increase in N amount and timing of application caused a difference in dough properties, such as water absorption, mixing time, and tolerance, among the cultivars. Soluble and insoluble polymeric and monomeric protein contents increased with an increase in N amount and timing of application the three Korean wheat cultivars. The effects of N amount and application timing on bread loaf volume (BLV) varied among the cultivars. The BLV of Saekeumkang increased regardless of the N amount and timing of application, but that of Baekkang and Joongmo2008 cultivars was reduced. However, there was a positive correlation between protein content with the addition of N fertilization and BLV. In addition, SDSS, mixing time, and protein fractions were positively correlated with BLV. Since the response of fertilizer conditions was different for each wheat cultivar, it is necessary to build a suitable fertilizing system for each of them. Additionally, since the environment is changing, such as abnormal climate during the maturing period, research is needed to establish appropriate fertilizer conditions for varieties of bread wheat. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Quantification of Isoflavone Malonylglucosides in Soybean Seed during Germination

    콩 발아 중 isoflavone malonylglucosides의 함량 변이

    Ju-Won Lee, Yoo-Jung Yi, Ju-Hee Lee, Min-Sik Jo, Do-Jin Choi, Mu-Hyun Ma, Hong-Sik Kim, Dae-Ok Kim, Hong-Tae Yun, and Yong-Ho Kim

    이주원, 이유정, 이주희, 조민식, 최도진, 마무현, 김홍식, 김대옥, 윤홍태, 김용호

    Soybean produces three major types of isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, and glycitein aglycones and their glucosides and malonylglucosides. It has been known that ... + READ MORE
    Soybean produces three major types of isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, and glycitein aglycones and their glucosides and malonylglucosides. It has been known that malonylated glucosides are rapidly converted to their corresponding aglycones due to the unstable thermolabile glucoside malonates; therefore, the analytical study of malonylated glucosides has been insufficient. In this study, we analyzed the malonylglucoside content in soybean seeds. Isoflavone analysis of three soybean cultivars revealed that 81.5~90.0% of the total isoflavones were malonylglucosides, whereas aglycones were rarely detected. Moreover, the total isoflavone content increased during a 5-day germination period where growth regulators and coumaric acid treatments tended to yield higher isoflavone content than the normal germination treatment, however the differences were not significant; notably, the isoflavone accumulation trend continued with additional germination days. The content of malonylglucoside was higher than that of other isoflavones, which was 83.7~86.6% of the total isoflavone content in seeds with a 3-day germination period. Furthermore, isoflavones were significantly accumulated in the hypocotyl of seedlings with a 5-day germination period. The content of isoflavone in the hypocotyl of the Pungsannamul-kong was 10,240 ug/g when treated with coumaric acid, which was considerably higher than that of other cultivars and treatments. Additionally, soybean seeds heated at 60℃ for 1 hour produced higher isoflavone content than non-heated soybean seeds. Our results show that it is possible to increase the isoflavone content in soybean seeds through various treatments. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Reduction in Weed Occurrence and Soil Erosion by Barley Living Mulch in Soybean Production

    콩의 보리 활물피복(活物被覆, living mulch) 재배에 의한 잡초발생 및 토양유실의 감소

    Jong-Ho Seo, Jung-Kyung Moon, Gun-Ho Jung, Min-Jung Seo, Seok-Chul Heo, Ja-Hwan Gu, Chung-Dong Hwang, Hyeon-Kyung Bae, and Sang-Yeol Kim

    서종호, 문중경, 정건호, 서민정, 허석철, 구자환, 황정동, 배현경, 김상열

    Reduction in the occurrence of weed and erosion of slope soil by living mulch barley simultaneously sown with soybean were investigated at ... + READ MORE
    Reduction in the occurrence of weed and erosion of slope soil by living mulch barley simultaneously sown with soybean were investigated at the Upland Experimental Field in Suwon City in 2013 and 2014. The aboveground dry matter of 200-300, 100-200 kg/10a of living mulch barley was obtained at 40 and 60 after sowing, respectively. The occurrence of weeds was significantly reduced by barley living mulch. The early growth of soybean was reduced significantly because of the competition with barley living mulch, but the late growth of soybean after natural drying of barley living mulch was recovered considerably. The soybean grain yield with barley living mulch was similar to that of the normal soybean cultivation, showing no significant difference between no mulch and living mulch treatments. With respect to soil erosion on the slope soil, the amount of run-off water decreased by 20-50% and the amount of soil loss decreased by 70-90% by barley living mulch. The reduction in soil erosion by the use of plastic film + barley living mulch was similar to that of only barley living mulch. The barley living mulch in soybean production can be a promising cultivation technique as it reduces weed occurrence and soil erosion without grain yield reduction. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Resistance Resources for the Foxglove Aphid in Soybeans

    콩에서 흡즙해충 싸리수염진딧물 저항성 자원의 발굴

    Hong-Min Koh, Sumin Park, Kyung Hye Kim, Ji Min Kim, Taeklim Lee, Jinho Heo, Ju Seok Lee, Jinkyo Jung, and Sungteag Kang

    고홍민, 박수민, 김경혜, 김지민, 이택림, 허진호, 이주석, 정진교, 강성택

    The recent global climate change induced the drought, flooding, and insect pest outbreaks. These caused the severe damage to crop yield in ... + READ MORE
    The recent global climate change induced the drought, flooding, and insect pest outbreaks. These caused the severe damage to crop yield in the domesticated field and occurrence change of insect pest species. The sap-sucking insect pest, aphids are common in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and cause serious yield losses. Thus, developing resistance cultivars is promising and efficient strategy to prevent the significant yield losses by aphid and screening germplasm is the essential procedure to achieve this goal. We tried to establish a resistance test indicator for foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), in soybean and found that plant damage degree or infested plant damage is most suitable one. Also we screened around 1,200 of soybean germplasm including wild and cultivated species for its resistance to foxglove aphid from the various origins, and 67 soybeans, including PI 366121, showed antixenosis resistance, 31 germplasms among 67 antixenosis germplasms were showed antibiosis to foxglove aphid with non–choice test. The identified foxglove aphid resistant soybean resources showed significantly low rate in survival test. Furthermore, resistance type, (i.e., antibiosis or antixenosis) of each candidate were varied. In this research, we established the screening index for foxglove aphid resistance in soybean, and identified the resistance varieties. This result could be useful resources in breeding for new foxglove aphid resistance soybean cultivars, and provide fundamental information to investigate the resistance mechanism in soybean. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018
  • Research Article

    Effects of Paclobutrazol and Prohexadione-Ca on Seed yield, and Content of Oils and Gibberellin in Flax Grown in a Greenhouse
    Sang-Kuk Kim, Chae-Min Han, Jong-Hee Shin, and Tae-Young Kwon
    We investigated the effect of paclobutrazol (PB) and prohexadione-Ca (PC) on seed yield, and the content of oils and endogenous gibberellin in ... + READ MORE
    We investigated the effect of paclobutrazol (PB) and prohexadione-Ca (PC) on seed yield, and the content of oils and endogenous gibberellin in flax grown in a greenhouse. Flax seedlings were cultivated in a greenhouse with average ambient temperature ranging from 35℃ to 38℃ during the growing period, and then PB and PC were applied on the leaves. The height of flax plants was reduced significantly by the foliar application of PB and PC. The highest ripening seed rate recorded was 94.5% with 2000 ppm PC; a 10.3% increase compared with that of the control. Both PB and PC markedly increased the fructification of flax seed. The application of two plant growth retardants resulted in higher seed production in flax seedlings grown in open field than in those grown in a greenhouse. The highest oil content was observed in flax treated with PC, whereas, the lowest oil content was observed in flax treated with PB. The oil content and ratio of unsaturated fatty acids were higher in flax seedlings grown in greenhouse than in those grown in open field. The level of two endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) in flax seeds decreased with the application of PB and PC. The flax plants treated with PB and PC presented higher secoisolariciresinol diglucoside content than that of the control. The optimal concentration of PC was found to be 2000 ppm. In conclusion, the foliar application of 2000 ppm PC might be useful in increasing oil content and seed production in flax plants. - COLLAPSE
    September 2018