• Critical Temperature for Grain Filling of Japonica Rice in Korea

    우리나라 자포니카 벼 품종의 등숙 한계온도 분석

    Woonho Yang, Shingu Kang, Dae-Woo Lee, Mi-jin Chae

    양운호, 강신구, 이대우, 채미진

    Critical temperature for grain filling of three Korean japonica rice varieties was analyzed by late transplantation to induce a low temperature during … + READ MORE
    Critical temperature for grain filling of three Korean japonica rice varieties was analyzed by late transplantation to induce a low temperature during grain filling period in a field study. The grain filling percentage (GFP) and grain dry weight (GDW) showed a sigmoid development for the first and second transplants in 2020 and first to third transplants in 2021. For the third transplant in 2020 and fourth transplant in 2021, the GFP and GDW reached a peak at 42 days after heading (DAH), and then decreased or remained unchanged. In non-linear regression analyses, 95% of the final GFP and GDW appeared at 49 - 62 DAH for the second transplant in 2020 and at 37 - 46 DAH and 30 - 36 DAH for the second and third transplants in 2021, respectively. At these time points, the critical seven-day moving temperature (7dMovT) was 8.4~9.4℃ for the second transplant in 2020 and 9.4~10.9℃ for the second and third transplants in 2021, depending on the grain filling traits and varieties of rice. The lowest 7dMovT was 8.4 - 8.7℃ in the three varieties. The observed lowest 7-day mean temperature (7dMT) accompanying increases in the GFP and GDW was 9.4 - 10.1℃, depending on the varieties in the third transplant of 2020 and fourth transplant of 2021. In the two transplants mentioned above, the highest 7dMT that showed no increase or decrease in grain filling traits was 8.7 - 9.1℃. The critical temperature for grain filling of japonica rice was 8.4 - 8.7℃ based on the 7dMovT and 9.1 - 9.4℃ based on the 7dMT. The previous 7dMT of 10℃ is recommended to determine the marginal harvest time for safe rice cropping since the temperature was the highest among the lowest temperature that accompanied an increase in grain filling traits. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Heading Ecology of Rice Varieties Adaptable to the Temperature and Day-Length Conditions in North Korean Regions

    북한 지역 기온과 일장 환경 적응 벼 품종의 출수생태 특성 분석

    Woonho Yang, Shingu Kang, Dae-Woo Lee, Mi-jin Chae

    양운호, 강신구, 이대우, 채미진

    We investigated the basic vegetative phase (BVP), photoperiod-sensitivity (PS), and thermo-sensitivity (TS) of 40 rice varieties to characterize their heading ecology that … + READ MORE
    We investigated the basic vegetative phase (BVP), photoperiod-sensitivity (PS), and thermo-sensitivity (TS) of 40 rice varieties to characterize their heading ecology that is adaptable to North Korean rice production areas. The ranges were 12 - 43 days for BVP, 0 - 74 days for PS, and 15 - 33 days for TS, depending on the variety. The number of days from transplanting to the heading stage (DTH) was significantly correlated with PS in the 13 major rice production regions where all 40 varieties (including early-, middle-, and mid-late-maturing varieties) were tested. DTH was significantly correlated with BVP and TS but not with PS in the 10 low-temperature regions where only 28 early-maturing varieties were tested. The heading ecology of the adaptable varieties for each region could be characterized by an exponential equation between the BVP and PS of varieties that headed at the border of the safe marginal heading date (SMHD) for each of the seven regional environments (Kaesong, Haeju, Yongyon, Singye, Sariwon, Nampo, and Pyongyang). A PS of 25 - 30 days or less was an additional adaptive trait in the Sariwon and Pyongyang environments. The varieties that reached the heading stage not later than the SMHD in six regional environments (Anju, Kusong, Sinuiju, Changjon, Wonsan, and Supung) and those that reached the heading stage not later than the late marginal heading date (LMHD) in four regional environments (Hamhung, Pyonggang, Huichon, and Kanggye) had both a PS of 26 days or less and a BVP of 25 - 28 days or less. In the Yangdok, Sinpo, and Chunggang environments, varieties that reached the heading stage not later than the LMHD for each region had a BVP of 15 - 20 days or less. The results suggested that a shortened BVP trait should be introduced to existing early-maturing rice varieties to reduce the duration of growth period to reach the heading stage. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Critical Temperature for Early Marginal Transplanting of Japonica Rice in Korea

    우리나라 자포니카 벼 품종의 조기이앙 한계온도 분석

    Woonho Yang, Shingu Kang, Dae-Woo Lee, Mi-Jin Chae

    양운호, 강신구, 이대우, 채미진

    We investigated critical temperature for early marginal transplanting (CT-EMT) of the contemporary japonica rice varieties in Korea through the field, pot seedling … + READ MORE
    We investigated critical temperature for early marginal transplanting (CT-EMT) of the contemporary japonica rice varieties in Korea through the field, pot seedling tray, and the phytotron experiments during 2020 to 2023. The lowest mean temperature for 10 days from transplanting (MT-10DFT) that resulted in earlier heading date was 12.4℃ and the highest MT-10DFT that did not show the earlier heading date was 12.0℃ in the field study when the MT-10DFT varied by changing transplanting date. The lowest MT-10DFT that induced the increased biomass but not the earlier heading date was 11.6℃ and the highest MT-10DFT that showed neither the increased biomass nor the earlier heading date was 11.4℃. Compared to the 10-day later transplanting, the dates of the first root development, initiation of the chlorophyll recovery, and the first tiller development were earlier when the MT-10DFT was 9.1℃ or higher, 10.5℃ or higher, and 11.6℃ or higher, respectively, in the pot seedling tray and field experiments. The earliness of the first tiller development was a practical index for the estimation of CT-EMT during the early growth stage of rice. The response of transplanted rice to temperature treatments with the diurnal change of 10℃ in the phytotron study was similar to that shown in the field study. The data shown for constant temperature without a diurnal change revealed that the extent of positive effects of high temperature at day-time was greater than the extent of negative effects of low temperature at night-time on the early growth of transplanted rice. It was concluded that the critical MT-10DFT for early marginal transplanting of japonica rice in the temperate environments was between 11.4 to 11.6℃ based on the plant growth and between 12.0 to 12.4℃ based on the plant development. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Preference and Sensory Trait Analysis of Korean Rice Varieties among International Consumers

    해외소비자의 국내육성 벼 품종에 대한 선호도 및 식미관련 형질 분석

    Chang-Min Lee, Song-Hee Park, Su-Kyung Ha, Hyun-Sook Lee, Gileng Lee, Seung Young Lee, Ji-Ung Jeung, Hyun-Su Park, Jae-Ryoung Park, O-Young Jeong

    이창민, 박송희, 하수경, 이현숙, 이길응, 이승영, 정지웅, 박현수, 박재령, 정오영

    This study aimed to assess the preferences of African, American, and Asian panels, in comparison to a Korean panel, for various Korean … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to assess the preferences of African, American, and Asian panels, in comparison to a Korean panel, for various Korean rice varieties, including three japonica, two indica, and one Tongil-type, all developed by the Rural Development Administration in Korea. Regarding rice appearance, most panelists, except for the Koreans, favored long and slender rice varieties like ‘Hanyeol’, ‘Hyangyeol’, and ‘Amissal’. In contrast, the Koreans preferred wider varieties like ‘Sindongjin’ and ‘Deuraehyang’. Notably, the overseas panelists consistently favored rice varieties with high appearance quality in sensory evaluations of cooked rice. Both overseas and Korean panelists strongly preferred the indica rice variety ‘Hanyeol’ in terms of appearance quality and sensory evaluations. However, Korean rice varieties like ‘Amissal’ and ‘Sindongjin’ scored high in appearance quality with overseas panelists but received low ratings in sensory aspects, including shape, stickiness, and taste, compared to those for ‘Hanyeol’. This suggests that considering sensory characteristics is important when exporting Korean rice varieties. Regarding taste characteristics preferred by the panelists derived from the correlation analysis between taste traits, Africans preferred rice with a smooth texture and no stickiness, especially favoring long-grain rice. Americans leaned towards rice with a slightly firm texture, some stickiness, and late aging characteristics. Asians preferred rice with a smooth texture, low stickiness, and long-grain varieties. In contrast, Koreans favored round rice with a glossy appearance, a slightly firm texture, late aging traits, and some stickiness. These research findings can serve as valuable data for the development of rice varieties for overseas markets and are expected to contribute to securing competitiveness in international markets. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Effects of Nitrogen Application Levels on Grain Yield and Yield-related Traits of Rice Genetic Resources

    질소비료 시비 수준이 벼의 수량 및 수량구성요소에 미치는 영향

    Tae-Heon Kim, Suk-Man Kim

    김태헌, 김석만

    Nitrogen is a major and essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. However, excessive nitrogen application can lead to ecological pollution or … + READ MORE
    Nitrogen is a major and essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. However, excessive nitrogen application can lead to ecological pollution or greenhouse gas emissions, consequently resulting in climate change. In this study, we used 153 genetic resources of rice to evaluate the effects of the levels of nitrogen application on grain yield and yield-related traits. Significant differences were noted in the yield and yield-related traits of genetic resources between two nitrogen application levels, namely, 4.5 kg/10a (NN: normal nitrogen condition) and 9.0 kg/10a (LN: low-nitrogen condition). Among the tested traits, days to heading (DTH), clum length (CL), grain yield per plant (GYP), number of panicles per plant (NPP), and number of spikelets per panicle (NSP) decreased by 1.8 to 17.9% when the nitrogen application levels decreased from NN to LN. The 1,000-grain weight (TWG) and percentage of ripened grain (PRG) increased by 2.6 to 11.2% under these conditions. Based on nitrogen application levels, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated significant differences in GYP, NPP, and PRG but not in NSP and TGW. NPP exhibited negative correlations with NSP (‑0.44) and TGW (‑0.44), and TGW displayed a negative correlation with PRG (‑0.34), whereas, GYP exhibited a positive correlation with PRG (0.37) and NSP (0.38). A similar pattern was recorded under the LN condition. NPP, TGW, and PRG were clustered as PA (principle axis) 1 under the LN condition by factor analysis. NSP and GYP were clustered as PA (principle axis) 2. These results demonstrated NPP and NSP as the primary factors contributing to the decrease in grain yield under LN conditions. In conclusion, we selected eight genetic resources that exhibited higher GYP under both NN and LN conditions with higher NPP or NSP. These genetic resources can be considered valuable breeding materials for the adaptation of plants to nitrogen deficiency. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Prediction of Soybean Growth in the Northern Region based on Growth Data from the Southern Regions of the Korean Peninsula

    한반도 남부지역 생육 데이터 기반 북방지역 콩 생육 예측

    Ye Rin Kim, Jong hyuk Kim, Il Rae Rho

    김예린, 김종혁, 노일래

    This study was conducted to determine the sowing limit period and predict growth in the northern region based on accumulative temperature for … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the sowing limit period and predict growth in the northern region based on accumulative temperature for each growth stage of soybean cultivated in the southern regions of the Korean Peninsula. First, the results of a demonstration test in the central region (Yeoncheon) of the Korean Peninsula were very similar to the predicted and actual values on the date by growth stage obtained through cultivation. This method was then applied to seven agricultural climatic zones in the northern Korean Peninsula. The results predicted that regardless of ecotype, soybean could be grown and harvested in the southern and northern parts of Mt. Suyang, south of the East Sea, and in the central and northern inland areas. However, it was predicted that no ecotype could be grown and harvested normally in the northern alpine region. Furthermore, north of the East Sea, the prediction indicated that early and mid-maturing cultivars could be grown and harvested normally, but middle-late maturing cultivars appeared to lack the number of growth days. The sowing limit period also varied depending on the ecotype, although it was reached earlier as higher latitudes were approached; the period ranged from May 16 to June 26 in the northern and southern parts of Mt. Suyang, north and south of the East Sea, and central and northern inland areas. Furthermore, all ecotypes of the northern alpine region, as well as mid-late maturing cultivars in the north of the East Sea, were predicted to be unable to grow normally owing to the lack of number of days required for soybean growth and development. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Development and Utilization of KASP Markers Targeting the Lipoxygenase Gene in Soybean
    Seo-Young Shin, Se-Hee Kang, Byeong Hee Kang, Sreeparna Chowdhury, Won-Ho Lee, Jeong-Dong Lee, Sungwoo Lee, Yu-Mi Choi, Bo-Keun Ha
    Lipoxygenase gives soybeans their grassy flavor, which can disrupt food processing efficiency. This study aimed to identify soybean genotypes with lipoxygenase deficiency … + READ MORE
    Lipoxygenase gives soybeans their grassy flavor, which can disrupt food processing efficiency. This study aimed to identify soybean genotypes with lipoxygenase deficiency among 1,001 soybean accessions and to develop kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) markers that can detect lipoxygenase mutations. Three lipoxygenase isozymes (Lox1, Lox2, and Lox3) were analyzed using a colorimetric assay based on a substrate-enzyme reaction. Among the 1,001 accessions examined, two (IT160160 and IT276392) exhibited a deficiency solely in Lox1, and one (IT269984) lacked both Lox1 and Lox2. IT160160 had a 74-bp deletion in exon 8 of Lox1 (Glyma13g347600), whereas IT276392 displayed a missense mutation involving the change of C to A at position 2,880 of Lox1. Moreover, we successfully developed four KASP markers that specifically target Lox1, Lox2, and Lox3 mutations. To validate the Lox1 KASP markers, we used two F2:3 populations generated through a cross between Daepung 2 (lipoxygenase wild type, maternal parent), IT160160, and IT276392 (null Lox1, paternal parent). The results revealed that the Daepung 2 × IT160160 group followed the expected 3:1 ratio according to Mendel’s law, whereas the Daepung 2 × IT276392 group did not. Furthermore, a comparison between the colorimetric and KASP marker analyses results revealed a high agreement rate of 96%. KASP markers offer a distinct advantage by allowing the distinction of heterozygous types independent of other variables. As a result, we present an opportunity to expedite the lipoxygenase-deficient cultivar development. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Establishing Optimal Conditions for LED-Based Speed Breeding System in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

    LED 기반 콩[Glycine max (L.) Merr.] 세대단축 시스템 구축을 위한 조건 설정

    Gyu Tae Park, Ji-Hyun Bae, Ju Seok Lee, Soo-Kwon Park, Dool-Yi Kim, Jung-Kyung Moon, Mi-Suk Seo

    박규태, 배지현, 이주석, 박수권, 김둘이, 문중경, 서미숙

    Plant breeding is a time-consuming process, mainly due to the limited annual generational advancement. A speed breeding system, using LED light sources, … + READ MORE
    Plant breeding is a time-consuming process, mainly due to the limited annual generational advancement. A speed breeding system, using LED light sources, has been applied to accelerate generational progression in various crops. However, detailed protocols applicable to soybeans are still insufficient. In this study, we report the optimized protocols for a speed breeding system comprising 12 soybean varieties with various maturity ecotypes. We investigated the effects of two light qualities (RGB ratio), three levels of light intensity (PPFD), and two soil conditions on the flowering time and development of soybeans. Our results showed that an increase in the red wavelength of the light spectrum led to a delay in flowering time. Furthermore, as light intensity increased, flowering time, average internode length, and plant height decreased, while the number of nodes, branches, and pods increased. When compared to agronomic soil, horticultural soil resulted in an increase of more than 50% in the number of nodes, branches, and pods. Consequently, the optimal conditions were determined as follows: a 10-hour short-day photoperiod, an equal RGB ratio (1:1:1), light intensity exceeding 1,300 PPFD, and the use of horticultural soil. Under these conditions, the average flowering time was found to be 27.3±2.48 days, with an average seed yield of 7.9±2.67. Thus, the speed breeding systems reduced the flowering time by more than 40 days, compared to the average flowering time of Korean soybean resources (approximately 70 days). By using a controlled growth chamber that is unaffected by external environmental conditions, up to 6 generations can be achieved per year. The use of LED illumination and streamlined facilities further contributes to cost savings. This study highlights the substantial potential of integrating modern crop breeding techniques, such as digital breeding and genetic editing, with generational shortening systems to accelerate crop improvement. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Effect of Sowing Dates on Agronomic Traits and Quality of Seed for Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Southern Area of Korea
    Hye Rang Park, Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana, Beom Kyu Kang, Jeong Hyun Seo, Jun Hoi Kim, Su Vin Heo, Ji Yoon Lee, Won Young Han, Hong-Tai Yun, Choon Song Kim
    Owing to adverse weather conditions, there is a heightened focus on actively researching the regulation of the sowing date in field crop … + READ MORE
    Owing to adverse weather conditions, there is a heightened focus on actively researching the regulation of the sowing date in field crop cultivation. Soybean, a prominent field crop with extensive acreage and production, is a photophilic and thermophilic crop characterized by short-day photoperiodism. Identifying the optimal sowing time is crucial for mitigating the effects of severe weather conditions on soybean yield. Precise control over the timing of soybean sowing is the key to minimizing yield reduction due to unfavorable weather conditions. Temperature, photoperiod, and their interplay are the most significant factors influencing soybean cultivation among various weather factors. We conducted an experiment using three Korean soybean cultivars with varied maturities (Hwangkeumol: early maturing and Daewonkong and Pungsannamulkong: late maturing) in 2013 and 2014. Our investigation covered aspects of soybean growth, development, yield components, isoflavones, and visual seed quality. Across all three varieties, isoflavone levels increased with later sowing dates, while other measured components exhibited significant variations based on the sowing date. This study also provides valuable insights for the selection of suitable cultivars that perform well in soybean cultivation at various durations of maturity. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Agricultural and Sprouts Characteristics of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Cultivated in Southern Areas According to Sowing Dates

    파종시기에 따른 남부지역 재배 녹두의 생육 및 나물특성 변화

    Ji Ho Chu, Byeong Won Lee, Yeong Kwang Ju, Ju Seong Im, Seok Bo Song, Myeong Eun Choi, Ji Young Kim, Sang Ik Han

    추지호, 이병원, 주영광, 임주성, 송석보, 최명은, 김지영, 한상익

    The cultivation period of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) in Korea has undergone recent variations. However, limited research has been conducted … + READ MORE
    The cultivation period of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) in Korea has undergone recent variations. However, limited research has been conducted on pod shattering and sprout characteristics of mung beans on different sowing dates. This study aims to compare pod shattering and sprouts productivity based on different sowing dates. The research was was conducted with six different sowing dates (early May, mid-May, early June, mid-June, early July, and mid-July) in 2021 and 2022. Delayed sowing dates resulted in shortened days to germination, flowering time, and maturity time, whereas plant height, branch number, and node number increased. In addition, stem thickness and the number of pods per plant decreased. In the mung bean cultivar ‘Sanpo’, the pod shattering rate ranged from 10.0% to 19.3%, consistently lower than that of ‘Dahyun’ across all six sowing dates. The sowing date associated with the lowest shattering rate was early June. ‘Sanpo’ sown in early July and ‘Dahyun’ sown in mid-May exhibited the highest sprout production, at 871% and 750%, respectively. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Effects of the Double Cropping System on Wheat Quality and Soil Properties

    밀-하작물 작부체계가 밀 품질 및 토양에 미치는 영향

    Jisu Choi, Seong Hwan Oh, Seo Young Oh, Tae Hee Kim, Sung Hoon Kim, Hyeonjin Park, Jin-Kyung Cha

    최지수, 오성환, 오서영, 김태희, 김성훈, 박현진, 차진경

    To achieve self-sufficiency in domestic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an increase in high-quality wheat production is essential. Given Korea's limited land … + READ MORE
    To achieve self-sufficiency in domestic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an increase in high-quality wheat production is essential. Given Korea's limited land area, the utilization of cropping systems is imperative. Wheat is compatible with a double cropping system along with rice, soybeans, and corn. Data on alterations in wheat quality following summer crop cultivation is required. This study investigated the impact of cultivating preceding crops such as rice, soybeans, and corn in a wheat cropping system. The analysis focused on the influence of these preceding crops on wheat growth, quality, and soil characteristics, elucidating their interrelationships and impacts. While there were no differences in growth timing and quantity during wheat growth, a significant variance was observed in stem length. Protein content, a key quality attribute of wheat, displayed variations based on the intercropped crops, with the highest increase observed in wheat cultivated after soybeans. Soil moisture content also exhibited variations depending on the intercropping system. The wheat-rice intercropping system, which requires soil moisture retention, resulted in greater pore space saturation in comparison to other systems. Moreover, soil chemical properties, specifically phosphorus and calcium levels, were influenced by intercropping. The highest reduction in soil phosphorus content occurred with soybean cultivation. These findings suggest that intercropping wheat with soybeans can potentially enhance wheat quality in domestic varieties. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Multivariate Characterization of Common and Durum Wheat Collections Grown in Korea using Agro-Morphological Traits
    Young-ah Jeon, Sun-Hwa Kwak, Yu-Mi Choi, Hyemyeong Yoon, Myoung-Jae Shin, Ho-Sun Cheon, Sieun Choi, Youngjun Mo, Chon-Sik Kang, Kebede Taye Desta
    Developing improved wheat varieties is vital for global food security to meet the rising demand for food. Therefore, assessing the genetic diversity … + READ MORE
    Developing improved wheat varieties is vital for global food security to meet the rising demand for food. Therefore, assessing the genetic diversity across wheat genotypes is crucial. This study examined the diversity of 168 durum wheat and 47 common wheat collections from 54 different countries using twelve agro-morphological parameters. Geumgang, a prominent Korean common wheat variety, was used as a control. Both qualitative and quantitative agronomical characteristics showed wide variations. Most durum wheats were shown to possess dense spikes (90%), while common wheats showed dense (40%) or loose (38%) spikes, with yellowish-white being the dominant spike color. The majority of the accessions were awned regardless of wheat type, yellowish-white being the main awn color. White or red kernels were produced, with white kernels dominating in both common (74%) and durum (79%) wheats. Days to heading (DH) and days to maturity (DM) were in the ranges of 166–215 and 208–250 days, respectively, while the culm length (CL), spike length (SL), and awn length (AL) were in the ranges of 53.67–163, 5.33–18.67, and 0.50–19.00 cm, respectively. Durum wheats possessed the shortest average DH, DM, and SL, while common wheat had the longest CL and AL (p < 0.05). Common wheats also exhibited the highest average one-thousand-kernel weight. Hierarchical cluster analysis, aided by principal component analysis, grouped the population into seven clusters with significant differences in their quantitative variables (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this research revealed diversity among common and durum wheat genotypes. Notably, 26 durum wheat and 17 common wheat accessions outperformed the control, offering the potential for developing early-maturing, high-yielding, and lodging-resistant wheat varieties. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Assessment of Hot Water Treatment and Lime Sulfur Mixture on Germination and Disinfection Efficacy of Organic Wheat Seeds

    온탕침지법과 석회유황합제 처리가 유기농 밀 종자의 발아와 소독효과 미치는 영향 평가

    Min-Jeong Kim, One-Sung Park, Chang-Ki Shim, Jae-Hyeong Lee

    김민정, 박원성, 심창기, 이재형

    This study aimed to estimate optimal treatment for enhancing the germination rate and disinfections effect of organic wheat varieties, Jokyung, Geumgang, Saegumgang, … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to estimate optimal treatment for enhancing the germination rate and disinfections effect of organic wheat varieties, Jokyung, Geumgang, Saegumgang, and Baekgang using hot water treatment and lime sulfur mixture. Before disinfection, the germination rates of the seeds averaged 86.3±2.5% to 87.5±2.9%, while the infection levels caused by fungi and bacteria were observed to be 22.5±2.9% to 38.3±2.5% and 18.8±4.8% to 23.8±2.5%, respectively. The germination rates of four wheat varieties under hot water treatments were either the same or higher compared to untreated seeds. As the temperature and treatment time of hot water treatment increased, the contamination levels of fungi and bacteria decreased. The optimal hot water treatment for the seeds was observed at 55℃ for 10 minutes, resulting in germination rates averaging 90.0±0.0% to 97.5±2.9%, which were either the same or higher than untreated seeds. The disinfection effectiveness against fungi and bacteria was high, averaging 83.3~93.5% and 100%, respectively. Additionally, an investigation was conducted on the germination rates and microbial disinfection efficacy of 0.2% and 0.4% lime-sulfur mixture with varying treatment times, 3 to10 minutes for each wheat variety. As the treatment time elapsed, no significant differences in germination rates were observed among four wheat varieties. However, the germination rates were higher compared to the untreated group (86.3~87.5%), and the optimal treatment time was found to be 7 minutes or 10 minutes, resulting in an average reduction of 90.0~96.0% in contamination levels of fungi and bacteria. Therefore, the germination rates and disinfection effects varied depending on the treatment conditions of hot water treatment and lime-sulfur mixture applied for the disinfection of the four varieties of organic wheat seeds. However, it is considered that treating the seeds with hot water treatment at 55℃ for 10 minutes or with 0.2% or 0.4% lime-sulfur compound for 10 minutes enhances germination rates and reduces the contamination rate of fungi and bacteria compared to untreated seeds. Thus, these environmentally friendly seed disinfection technologies are likely to be highly useful in agricultural fields. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Organic Manure Compost and Inorganic Fertilizer Levels Affect Maize Growth in Barren Soils

    척박지에서 퇴비와 무기질 비료가 옥수수 생장에 미치는 영향

    Kyung-Hee Kim, Gyu Won Kim, Sang-Ryong Lee, Byung-Moo Lee

    김경희, 김규원, 이상용, 이병무

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of manure compost content on early growth of maize in barren soils, to establish cultivation … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of manure compost content on early growth of maize in barren soils, to establish cultivation techniques that can increase maize yields on barren soils and to provide information on cultivation techniques. The results showed that in the manure compost treatments (1,500 and 1,000 kg/10a), yields increased with increasing amounts of manure compost compared to those of standard fertilization and decreased with decreasing amounts of manure compost. In addition, in fields with the no manure compost treatment (0 kg/10a), yields decreased overall compared to yields of fields treated with manure compost (1,500 and 1,000 kg/10a) regardless of the amount of fertilization. Maize growth was good irrespective of variety when compost was applied in high amounts to the barren soil, but poor initial growth was observed in all varieties in the untreated plots where no compost was applied to the barren soil. These results confirm that maize is affected by organic (manure compost) fertilizer in all aspects of its growth, and that a minimum of 1,000 kg/10a of manure compost and two-thirds (0.6) of chemical fertilizer should be applied to ensure stable maize yields, particularly when maize is grown on barren soils. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Changes in Phytosterol Content in Cobs and Kernels During Physiological Maturity of Corn Ears

    옥수수 이삭 등숙 기간 동안 속대와 종실의 Phytosterol 함량 변화

    Jun Young Ha, Young Sam Go, Jae Han Son, Mi-Hyang Kim, Kyeong Min Kang, Tae Wook Jung, Beom Young Son, Hwan Hee Bae

    하준영, 고영삼, 손재한, 김미향, 강경민, 정태욱, 손범영, 배환희

    Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the world’s most important crops, along with wheat and rice, with a global corn … + READ MORE
    Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the world’s most important crops, along with wheat and rice, with a global corn production expected to reach 1,154.5 million tons in 2023. Considering this grain production, The generation of corn cob is expected to reach approximately 207.8 million tons in 2023. However, as an agricultural by-product, corn cobs are often considered waste and remain underutilized. Phytosterols, which are abundant in vegetable oils such as corn oil, provide a number of health benefits, including liver health, cholesterol reduction, and protection against chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the potential of Kwangpyeongok ears, which are commonly used as grain and silage corn in Korea. We also examined the variation in phytosterol content with the maturity of corn ears to identify the optimal time for utilization. At the beginning of physiological maturity, corn cobs had 113.3 mg/100g DW of total phytosterols, which was highest phytosterol abundance during the growth stage. Corn kernels also had the highest phytosterol content at the beginning of physiological maturity. While previous studies on corn bioactive compounds have mainly focused on the kernels, the results of this study highlight that cobs are an excellent source of these compounds. Furthermore, phytosterol levels were influenced by genetic factors and developmental stages, suggesting the to increase the use of cobs as a source of bioactive compounds. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Comparison of the Nutritional and Functional Compounds in Naked Oats (Avena sativa L.) Cultivated in Different Regions

    재배지역 차이에 따른 쌀귀리 영양성분 및 기능성 성분 비교

    Ji-Hye Song, Dea-Wook Kim, Hak-Young Oh, Jong-Tak Yun, Yong-In Kuk, Kwang-Yeol Yang

    송지혜, 김대욱, 오학영, 윤종탁, 국용인, 양광열

    To cope with climate change, we compared the quality of naked oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivated in different regions. Naked oats … + READ MORE
    To cope with climate change, we compared the quality of naked oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivated in different regions. Naked oats were collected from domestic farms in different cultivation regions grouped as G1 and G2 for 3 years (2020-2022). The appearance, quality, and nutritional and functional compounds in the samples were assessed. In terms of appearance quality, the brightness and yellowness of the samples from the G1 region were significantly lower than those of the samples from the G2 region in 2020; however, no differences were observed between cultivation regions in the other 2 years. The results of testing the vitality of naked oats seeds showed that the electrical conductivity value was significantly lower in the samples from the G1 region than in those from the G2 region only in 2022. Among the nutritional components, moisture content was higher in the G2 region than in the G1 region over all 3 years, and the crude protein content was significantly higher in the G2 region than in the G1 region over all years. Carbohydrate content was significantly higher in the G1 region than in the G2 region in all 3 years and was inversely proportional to the crude protein content. The crude fat content tended to be significantly higher in the G1 region than in the G2 region, except in 2022. The levels of beta-glucan, a functional compound rich in naked oats, ranged between 3.4% and 4.2%, and except in 2020, there was no significant difference between cultivation regions. In addition, the content of avenanthramides, representative functional compounds that exist only in oats, was assessed. Over 2 years, in 2021 and 2022, the avenanthramide content was in the range of 2.4-20.7 μg/g and tended to be significantly higher in the G2 region than in the G1 region in both years. According to a survey of the average and minimum temperatures during the growing season of naked oats from 2020 to 2022, the average and minimum temperatures in January in the G2 region, which is the cultivation-limit area, were similar to those in Haenam in the G1 region. In conclusion, differences in nutritional and functional compounds were observed in naked oats grown in different cultivation areas. Therefore, considering the cultivation area of naked oats is expanding because of climate change, changes in the compounds that affect quality should be investigated. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Optimal Salt Concentration and Temperature for Perilla Seed Germination and Soil Bulk Density, Sowing Depth, and Salinity on Emergence Rate in Reclaimed Soil

    들깨 NaCl 농도, 온도에 따른 발아와 간척지 토양에서 용적밀도, 파종깊이, 염농도에 따른 출현 특성

    Yang-Yeol Oh, Kwang-Seung Lee, Hee-Kyoung Ock, Hak-Seong Lee, Seo-Young Jung, Bo-Seong Seo, Young-Tae Shin, Kang-Ho Jung, Bang-Hun Kang, Hyun-Suk Jo, Su-Hwan Lee, Jin Jung, Seung-Yeon Kim, Jung-In Kim

    오양열, 이광승, 옥희경, 이학성, 정서영, 서보성, 신영태, 정강호, 강방훈, 조현숙, 이수환, 정진, 김승연, 김정인

    Data on salt tolerance, optimal sowing depth, soil bulk density (pb) and cardinal temperatures required for the germination and emergence of perilla … + READ MORE
    Data on salt tolerance, optimal sowing depth, soil bulk density (pb) and cardinal temperatures required for the germination and emergence of perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt) are scarce for reclaimed land soil. An experiment was conducted across six temperature treatments (10, 15, 20 , 25, 30, and 35℃) to determine the cardinal temperature for perilla seed germination and four salinity levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 mM) to determine the salt tolerance. Another experiment was performed for quantifying the emergence response of perilla to pb (1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 g cm-3), sowing depth (1, 2, 3, and 4 cm) and soil salinity. The results revealed that increased sodium chloride levels caused a significant reduction in the seed germination at Deulhyang and Sodam. The optimum upper limit temperature was less than 35℃. The optimal sowing depth and soil bulk density were 1 cm and 1.1 g cm-3 respectively. Perilla seedling growth was inhibited at 1.9 dS m-1 although varying responses were observed. These results aid our understanding of the germination and emergence rate of these crops and provide data for field cultivation to optimize crop sowing in reclaimed land. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Evaluation of Nutritional Content and Quality Attributes of Cookies Utilizing Calcium-Enriched Finger Millet Variety (Finger1ho)

    칼슘 함량이 높은 손가락조 ‘핑거1호’와 그 가공품의 영양 및 품질 특성

    Ji Ho Choo, Jee-Yeon Ko, Meyong Eun Choe, Ji Young Kim, Byong Won Lee, Young Kwang Ju, Hyoseob Seo, Choon-Song Kim, Sang-Ik Han

    추지호, 고지연, 최명은, 김지영, 이병원, 주영광, 서효섭, 김춘송, 한상익

    The nutrient-rich and climate-resilient finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) is a relatively new crop on the agricultural … + READ MORE
    The nutrient-rich and climate-resilient finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) is a relatively new crop on the agricultural landscape. The present study explores the agronomic characteristics and antioxidant activities of grains and cookies produced from ‘Finger1ho,’ which was the first finger millet variety developed in South Korea. With heightened calcium content (314 mg/100 g) and polyphenol levels, ‘Finger1ho’ exhibited superior radical scavenging activities compared to other millets. The investigation assessed the impact of whole finger millet flour at varying concentrations (0, 10, 30, 50, and 100%) on cookie properties. Increasing the substitution of finger millet flour in the cookie formulation resulted in a notable rise in calcium content, ranging from 1.8 times at 10% to an impressive 10.8 times at 100%, surpassing the levels found in conventional wheat cookies. Conversely, the sodium (Na) levels in finger millet cookies demonstrated minimal variations, presenting a potentially favorable aspect in addressing the high Na intake prevalent in the South Korean diet. Notably, the antioxidant activity, assessed through ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, exhibited a significant elevation compared to the control. This increase in antioxidant activity was directly proportional to the quantity of finger millet incorporated (p<0.001), indicating the potential health benefits associated with higher levels of finger millet in the cookie formulation. This study highlights finger millet’s potential as a beneficial ingredient, enhancing both consumer acceptability and the functional attributes of cookies. Notably, cookies with 10% to 50% added finger millet exhibited significantly superior quality characteristics compared to controls, suggesting promising avenues for health-functional cookie development. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Ecological Characteristics of Spike Heading Time of Korean Foxtail Millet Cultivars in the North-central Region of the Korean Peninsula

    한반도 중북부 지대에서 국내 조 품종의 출수기 생태 특성

    Sei Joon Park, Bo Hwan Kim, Hye Won Jun, Yi Kyeoung Kim

    박세준, 김보환, 전혜원, 김이경

    This study evaluated the ecological characteristics related to spike heading time of three Korean foxtail millet cultivars, i.e., one early and two … + READ MORE
    This study evaluated the ecological characteristics related to spike heading time of three Korean foxtail millet cultivars, i.e., one early and two late maturities, and a finger millet cultivar in the north-central region of the Korean Peninsula, Kangwon Province. The changes in heading time occurred due to the changes in planting time from mid-May to late June. The heading time of the early-maturity cultivars was early August, with 80 days required for heading (DH) for the mid-May planting; late August, with 65 DHs for the late June planting; and mid-late August, with 100 DHs and mid-October, with 65 DHs, respectively, for the late-maturity cultivars. The accumulated temperature at heading time ranged from 1,700℃ of mid-May planting to 1,500℃ of late June planting in the early-maturity cultivars. In contrast, it ranged from 2,100℃ to 1,900℃ in the late-maturity cultivars. The photoperiod at heading time ranged from 14.0 h to 13.2 h in the early-maturity cultivars, whereas it was from 13.2 h to 12.5 h in the late-maturity cultivars. Considering that the limiting heading time of Korean foxtail millet and finger millet in the northern region of Kangwon Povince is late August, the limiting accumulated temperature at the heading time was evaluated to be approximately 1,500℃ and 2,000℃ for early and late-maturity cultivars, respectively. The mean daily temperature from planting to heading time showed a negative correlation with the DH, which was shortened with the increase in mean daily temperature. This suggests that delaying the planting time from May to June in the north-central region of the Korean Peninsula increases the mean daily temperature during vegetative growth periods, resulting in the decrease of the DH and the accumulated temperature. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023
  • Transplanting Date and Planting Density Affect the Growth Characteristics and Seed Yield of Italian Ryegrass

    이앙 시기와 재식 밀도에 따른 이탈리안 라이그라스의 생육 및 종실 수량 특성 평가

    Yun-Ho Lee, Jeong-Won Kim, Hyeok-Jin Bak, Hyun-Ki Kim, Hyeon-Soo Jang, Dea-Yuk Kim, Jong-Tak Yoon

    이윤호, 김정원, 박혁진, 김현기, 장현수, 김대욱, 윤종탁

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; IRG) sowing season is delayed due to the autumn rainy season. Therefore, to address this … + READ MORE
    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; IRG) sowing season is delayed due to the autumn rainy season. Therefore, to address this problem, transplanting date and plant density were investigated. Transplant times investigated were October 20th, October 30th, and November 10th and planting densities were 50, 70, and 80 hills per 3.3 m2. The plant height, leaf area index, and plant coverage rate were high in the following order: October 20th, October 30th, and November 10th. There was no significant difference among planting densities. In addition, the number of tillers and dry weight before and after wintering were high on October 20th. In terms of yield components, the number of tillers, dry weight, and seed yield per unit area were higher with the transplanting date of October 20th than with transplanting on November 10th. There was no difference in seed yield between the planting densities of 80 and 70 hills per 3.3 m2. However, seed yield was low at 50 hills per 3.3 m2. In conclusion, the transplanting time for stable seed production is late October, and optimal plant density is 70 and 80 hills per 3.3 m2. A stable interplanting number before wintering will contribute to the seed yield. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2023