• Research Article

    Improvement of Rice Quality Using Grain Color Sorter During Early Transplanting Cultivation in the Southern Plain of Korea

    색채선별기 이용한 남부평야지 조기재배 해담쌀의 품질향상

    Jong-Hee Lee, Ji-Yoon Lee, Somyeong Lee, Dongjin Shin, Jinkyeong Cha, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Young-Ho Kwon, Su-min Jo, and Dong-Soo Park

    이종희, 이지윤, 이소명, 신동진, 차진경, 조준현, 권영호, 조수민, 박동수

    A photoelectric grain color sorter is commonly used in postharvest technology to detect and separate grains considered to be of good quality ... + READ MORE
    A photoelectric grain color sorter is commonly used in postharvest technology to detect and separate grains considered to be of good quality from those of poor quality based on color. In this study, the milled rice of Haedamssal cultivated under early transplanting conditions was evaluated using the color sorting device. Rice was classified according to standard grades of 64% for grade A, 18% for grade B, and 17.2% for grade C. By head rice ratio analysis, the milled rice of Haedamssal was recorded a grade A of 72.9%, representing a 24.5% improvement compared to the 48.4% of original grains. However, the grades B and C of Haedamssal rice were lower than those of original rice. In addition, grade A whiteness of Haedamssal rice was 45.3, which was lower than that of original grains. The color affinity redness was significantly lower in Haedamssal rice than in the screening control. No significant difference was found in the amylose and protein contents of rice before and after selection by the grain color sorter. In contrast, grain viscosity analysis revealed an increase in peak and final viscosities, while the consistence viscosity increased in low grade levels. Our results suggest that the photoelectric grain color sorter could improve the head rice ratio and palatability of early transplanted Hadamssal rice. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Effect of Biotic Substances on Isoflavone Content in Soybean Germination

    Biotic 물질이 콩 발아 중 Isoflavone 함량에 미치는 영향

    Seo-Young Kim, Young-Ho Song, Yoo-Jung Yi, Hong-Sik Kim, and Yong-Ho Kim

    김서영, 송영호, 이유정, 김홍식, 김용호

    For humans, soybean and soybean products are the main dietary sources of isoflvones, which are polyphenolic compounds that represent one of the ... + READ MORE
    For humans, soybean and soybean products are the main dietary sources of isoflvones, which are polyphenolic compounds that represent one of the most common categories of phytoestrogens. The objective of this study was to determine isoflavone concentrations in soybean cultivars during germination when treated with some biotic substances. Three soybean cultivars were germinated in replicated trials in 2018/2019 and their individual and total isoflavone concentrations were determined using HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography). Significant differences were observed in total isoflavone content were observed among cultivars regardless of years and treatments. ‘Daepung2-ho’ and ‘Uram’ had significantly higher total isoflavones than ‘Pungsannaul-kong’. Differences among treatments were also significant for total isoflavone content. In 2018, with chitosan treatment, total isoflavone concentration ranged from 551.15 to 7584.07 μg g-1, with an average of 2972.64 μg g-1 across cultivars. In 2019, there was no significant difference among treatments in total isoflavone content. Regarding individual isoflavone concentrations, the malonyl-glucoside groups accounted for over 85% of the total isoflavone content, which is indicated that these groups play an important role with regard to isoflavone components in soybean seeds. The individual proportions in the total concentrations of isoflavones varied according to germination period and seed tissues. Glucosides and malonyl-glucosides showed differences in concentrations among seed tissues, aglycones were further accumulated as germination period was progressed. This study suggests that biotic substances have an impact on seed isoflavone content during germination. However, cultivars with consistently high or low isoflavone concentrations across biotic substance treatments were identified desspite differences in germination period and seed tissues, demonstrating that the genetic factor plays the most important role in isoflavone accumulation. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Phytosterol Content in Double Cropping Maize

    이기작에 따른 옥수수의 지방산 조성 및 Phytosterol 함량 변화

    Sun-Lim Kim, Gun-Ho Jung, Mi-Jung Kim, Beom-Young Son, Jung-Tae Kim, Hwan-Hee Bae, Young-Sam Go, Gibum Yi, Jin-Seok Lee, and Seong-Bum Baek

    김선림, 정건호, 김미정, 손범영, 김정태, 배환희, 고영삼, 이기범, 이진석, 백성범

    The average growth day of 11 maize varieties from planting to silking in the first cropping (FC) was 89.5 days and ... + READ MORE
    The average growth day of 11 maize varieties from planting to silking in the first cropping (FC) was 89.5 days and in the second cropping (SC) was 46.7 days, which was 43 days faster than in the FC. The average 100-kernel weight (100 KW) in the FC was 28.4 g and 18.3 g in the SC, which was approximately 36.4% lower than that in the FC. The average crude oil content of FC was 3.97% and SC was 3.08%, which was about 0.89% lower than that of FC. The composition of stearic and oleic acid was significantly higher in FC, whereas palmitic and linoleic acid were higher in SC; however, linolenic acid was not statistically different between the two crops. The crude oil content was negatively correlated with linoleic acid (FC -0.264ns, SC -0.504**) and positively correlated with linolenic acid (0.526**). Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) composition showed a significant difference between FC (83.48%) and SC (82.96%). Total phytosterol content was 598.3 mg/100 g and 701.9 mg/100 g in FC and SC, respectively, and showed significant difference by planting dates. The β-sitosterol content showed no statistical difference between the planting dates, but campesterol and stigmasterol were significantly higher in SC than in FC. Therefore, it was considered that the temperature condition during the ripening period affects the 100 KW of maize, and this leads to the variation in phytosterol content. However, among phytosterols, β-sitosterol was relatively little affected by the planting dates. USFA composition showed a significantly negative correlation with phytosterol content. Considering the results, the relatively high phytosterol content in SC was mainly because of the delay in progress of starch accumulation as daily air temperature decreased from the middle of the ripening period, whereas progress of phytosterol accumulation in the maize kernel was considered relatively faster than that of starch accumulation. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Growth Response and Gene Expression by Waterlogging Stress on B73 Maize

    침수 처리에 따른 B73 옥수수의 생육 반응 및 유전자 발현 분석

    Young Sam Go, Jung-Tae Kim, Hwan Hee Bae, Beom-Young Son, Gibum Yi, Jun Young Ha, Sun-Lim Kim, and Seong-Bum Baek

    고영삼, 김정태, 배환희, 손범영, 이기범, 하준영, 김선림, 백성범

    Maize is thought to be an alternative crop to rice in paddy fields for efficient field management and maintenance of rice production ... + READ MORE
    Maize is thought to be an alternative crop to rice in paddy fields for efficient field management and maintenance of rice production at appropriate levels in Korea. Thus efforts to breed waterlogging-tolerant maize cultivars have been ongoing. However, molecular studies related to waterlogging tolerance are limited for developing molecular markers to select waterlogging tolerant maize varieties. In this study, we examined molecular biological changes of B73 in the V3 stage after immersion treatment for 7 days. Overall growth of maize was lower in treated samples compared to non-immersed control samples. The length of leaf and root decreased by 21.3% and 50.6%, respectively and the weight of root reduced by 21.6%. Soil plant analysis development (SPAD) value and chlorophyll content of leaf also decreased by 55.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of root increased by 46.5% at 2 hours in immersion treatment. In addition, immersed roots were 2.5-fold thickened with additional aerenchyma formation in the cortex. In order to identify the causes of these changes, we performed a microarray and found increased expression of genes, such as WIP1, PMIP2, EXPA1, TPS1, and MAS1, in immersed samples. These differentially expressed genes and expression of previously reported genes, including ALDH2, Wusl1032, UP-1, UP-2, and CAT2 were further confirmed with qRT-PCR. Here, we report 7 differentially expressed genes after immersing treatment, which may be utilized as useful resources for breeding waterlogging- tolerant maize. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Mitigation Effects of Foliar-Applied Hydrogen Peroxide on Drought Stress in Sorghum bicolor

    과산화수소 엽면 처리에 의한 수수에서 한발 스트레스 완화 효과

    Doo-Do Shim, Seung-Ha Lee, Jong-Il Chung, Min Chul Kim, Jung-Sung Chung, Yeong-Hun Lee, Seung-Ho Jeon, Gi-Eun Song, and Sang-In Shim

    심두보, 이승하, 정종일, 김민철, 정정성, 이영훈, 전승호, 송기은, 심상인

    Global climatic change and increasing climatic instability threaten crop productivity. Due to climatic change, drought stress is occurring more frequently in crop ... + READ MORE
    Global climatic change and increasing climatic instability threaten crop productivity. Due to climatic change, drought stress is occurring more frequently in crop fields. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) before leaf development on the growth and yield of sorghum for minimizing the damage of crops to drought. To assess the effect of H2O2 on the growth of sorghum plant, 10 mM H2O2 was used to treat sorghum leaves at the 3-leaf stage during growth in field conditions. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width were increased by 7.6%, 9.6%, 8.3% and 11.5%, respectively. SPAD value, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were increased by 3.0%, 4.9%, 26.0%, 23.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The amount of H2O2 in the leaf tissue of sorghum plant treated with 10 mM H2O2 was 0.7% of the applied amount after 1 hour. The level increased to approximately 1.0% after 6 hours. The highest antioxidant activity measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay was 847.3 μmol·g-1 at 6 hour after treatment. However, in the well-watered condition, the concentration of H2O2 in the plant treated by the foliar application of H2O2 was 227.8 μmol·g-1 higher than that of the untreated control. H2O2 treatment improved all the yield components and yield-related factors. Panicle length, plant dry weight, panicle weight, seed weight per plant, seed weight per unit area, and thousand seed weight were increased by 8.8%, 18.0%, 24.4%, 24.7%, 29.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that H2O2 treatment in sorghum increased the tolerance to drought stress and maintained growth and yield by ameliorating oxidative stress. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effect of Disinfectant Treatment on Sorghum Seeds

    소독제의 침지시간 및 희석농도가 수수 발아 및 오염율에 미치는 영향

    Kyeongmin Kim, Se-Hyun Choi, and Changsoo Kim

    김경민, 최세현, 김창수

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is an annual crop belonging to Poaceae, and is the fifth-largest crop after maize, wheat, rice, and barley ... + READ MORE
    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is an annual crop belonging to Poaceae, and is the fifth-largest crop after maize, wheat, rice, and barley. This study was conducted to establish an efficient seed sterilization method to manage fungal or bacterial infections of germinating sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum seeds (BTx623 and SAP317) were treated with benomyl- thiram and thiophanate-methyl triflumizole which are known to be effective disinfectants for sorghum seeds. For SAP317, the highest germination rate was accomplished with 24-hour treatment of both chemicals at a 200× dilution rate. For BTx623, the highest germination rate was observed after 24-hour treatment at a 200×/400× dilution rate for benomyl-thiram and control/200× for thiophanate-methyl triflumizole. Consequently, the optimal treatment for the seed disinfection in sorghum seeds may be at the dilution rate of 200× or 400× for 24 hours. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Growth Promotion in Red Pepper and Tomato Seedlings by Fermented Liquid Fertilizers and Elution of Mineral Nutrients by Extraction Methods

    발효액비별 고추와 토마토 육묘 생육 촉진 및 추출방법별 무기양분 용출

    Se Ji Jang and Yong In Kuk

    장세지, 국용인

    The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) plants. Additionally, we investigated which extraction methods produce the most effective fertilizer with the highest levels of mineral nutrients. The liquid fertilizers used in this study were made from fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake, and were extracted using fermentation or water and boiled water. In tomato plants, foliar-application of fermented fertilizer is known to promote more growth than application by drenching, regardless of the number of treatments (once or twice). In our studies, however, drenching with fertilizer promoted growth more effectively than foliar-application in red pepper plants. Studies in both tomato and red pepper have shown that the number of treatments does not significantly alter growth. Liquid fertilizers produced by a fermentation-extraction method promoted greater levels of growth in tomato compared to red pepper, and growth was greater when fertilizers were applied 20 (rather than 40) days post-sowing. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight were affected more by fermented fertilizers than plant height 20 days post-sowing. In red pepper, we observed increased shoot fresh weight when using fermented liquid fertilizers with concentrations of 0.1% or greater. Tomato shoot fresh weight increased similarly in response to fermented fertilizer treatments at the same concentration levels, except those derived from fish. Fermented fish liquid fertilizer was only effective in increasing tomato shoot fresh weight in concentrations exceeding 1%. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight also increased more than plant height in our studies using fermentation liquid fertilizers at 40 days after sowing. Red pepper fresh weight increased with application of bone + fish meal, red pepper leaf, and oil cake fertilizers at concentrations of 0.1%, but not with fish liquid fertilizer in concentrations under 0.5%. Shoot fresh weight in tomato increased with all liquid fertilizers. Growth in red pepper and tomato may be influenced by different kinds of fertilizers due to combinations of macro- and micro-nutrients, or specific macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. The mineral nutrients found in fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake were not easily extracted by fermentation; thus, liquid fertilizers made using water and boiled water methods more effectively promoted growth in red pepper and tomato due to the larger amounts of macronutrients eluted. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Identification of Ideal Seed Harvest Time for Itallian Ryegrass (IRG) ‘Kowinearly’ Variety in Reclaimed Land

    이탈리안라이그라스 코윈어리 품종의 간척지 채종 재배에서의 적정 수확시기 설정

    Chan Ho Kang, In Sol Lee, and Suk Ju Kwon

    강찬호, 이인석, 권석주

    This experiment was conducted to set ideal harvest time for itallian ryegrass (IRG) seed in reclaimed land. For IRG ‘Kowinearly’ variety sown ... + READ MORE
    This experiment was conducted to set ideal harvest time for itallian ryegrass (IRG) seed in reclaimed land. For IRG ‘Kowinearly’ variety sown in both autumn and spring, the peak growth in reclaimed land occurred in 20-30 days after heading. Plant height of IRG seedings in the spring was 90.4% of the fall-sown’s plants. The yield of IRG seeds in reclaimed land was generally lower than that of farm land due to poor growth conditions. After heading, the lodging and shattering increased gradually with time. The highest yield of seed in the fall-sown trial treatment was 238 kg/10a. However, in the spring-sown treatment, the highest yield reached 169 kg/10a, which was 71% that of the fall-sown treatment. To set optimum harvesting time for IRG seed, morphological changes in the plant, moisture content of seed, and germination rate were analyzed according to time series after heading. After heading, IRG stem color had turned pink in 18 days and seed color also changed after 20 days. Following 20-25 days after heading, the seed moisture content decreased to below 55% and germination rate increased to over 90%. Therefore optimum harvesting time for IRG ‘Kowinearly’ variety in reclaimed land was 20-30 days after heading because germination rate and yields were high and shattering percentage was low. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Effects of Sowing Method on Growth of Directed Seeding Cultivation Ginseng in Paddy Fields

    인삼 논 직파 재배시 파종방법이 출아 및 생육에 미치는 영향

    Bong-Jae Seong, Moo-Geun Jee, Ka-Soon Lee, Sun-Ick Kim, Hyun-Ho Kim, and Cho Jin-Woong

    성봉재, 지무근, 이가순, 김선익, 김현호, 조진웅

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the selection of an appropriate sowing method in on ginseng growth, and the ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the selection of an appropriate sowing method in on ginseng growth, and the results are as follows. SAS (semi-automatic sower), commonly used by direct seeding farms, provides fast operation speed but results in high labor cost, while (Hooper Seeder Sowing) offers fast operation speed and high germination rate, but leads to increased laborer’s fatigue. Daily working area per sower was 6,611 m2 for a motor type, and the operation time to sow 3,305 m2 was 15 hours for broadcast planting, and 8 hours for SAS. The germination rate of 1-year-old ginseng according to direct seeding was 69.1% for the treatment plot under broadcast planting, followed by 66.4% and 67.3% for manual sower and hoop sower, respectively, and the germination rate of SAS was the lowest at 64.2%. In addition, there were no differences in shoot and root growth of 1-year-old ginseng among the sowing methods. Therefore, the sowing method can be chosen depending on the economic size of ginseng farmers. That broadcast sowing (BS) is appropriate for small scale farmers, while motor-driven seeder sowing (MDS) for direct seeding is more suitable for large scale farmers. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020
  • Research Article

    Effects of Presoaking Treatments on Emergence of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Seeds

    파종전처리가 차나무 종자의 출아에 미치는 영향

    Doobo Shim and Seung-Ho Jeon

    심두보, 전승호

    Emergence and early growth changes of stratification condition of tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds were investigated in 7 treatments (control, pH 4, pH ... + READ MORE
    Emergence and early growth changes of stratification condition of tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds were investigated in 7 treatments (control, pH 4, pH 10, 70% ethanol (EtOH), 10 mM H2O2, 100 mM H2O2, and physical shock (5.9 J)). Ethanol treatment was toxic and did not induce emergence. The emergence rate was 36.7% in the control, 26.7% under pH 10, 46.7% under pH 4, 48.3% under physical shock, 51.7% under 10 mM H2O2, and 65.0% under 100 mM H2O2 treatments. It was higher by approximately 178% in the H2O2 treatment as compared to the control. Plant height was 6.5 cm in the control, 6.6 cm under pH 10, 7.6 cm under pH 4, 7.8 cm under physical shock, 8.3 cm under 10 mM H2O2, and 9.1 cm under 100 mM H2O2 treatments. Leaf length and leaf width were also higher under the H2O2 treatment. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide treatment induced emergence and increased the uniformity of early growth. - COLLAPSE
    June 2020